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The photo shows small, white shells that look like clamshells, and shell fragments. Each cell is about 0.25 mm across.
These shells from foraminifera sank to the sea floor. (credit: Deep East 2001, NOAA/OER)

Radiolarians

A second subtype of Rhizaria, the radiolarians, exhibit intricate exteriors of glassy silica with radial or bilateral symmetry ( [link] ). Needle-like pseudopods supported by microtubules radiate outward from the cell bodies of these protists and function to catch food particles. The shells of dead radiolarians sink to the ocean floor, where they may accumulate in 100 meter-thick depths. Preserved, sedimented radiolarians are very common in the fossil record.

The micrograph shows a tear drop-shaped white structure reminiscent of a shell. The structure is hollow and perfused with circular holes.
This fossilized radiolarian shell was imaged using a scanning electron microscope. (credit: modification of work by Hannes Grobe, Alfred Wegener Institute; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

Archaeplastida

Red algae and green algae are included in the supergroup Archaeplastida. It was from a common ancestor of these protists that the land plants evolved, since their closest relatives are found in this group. Molecular evidence supports that all Archaeplastida are descendents of an endosymbiotic relationship between a heterotrophic protist and a cyanobacterium. The red and green algae include unicellular, multicellular, and colonial forms.

Red algae

Red algae, or rhodophytes, are primarily multicellular, lack flagella, and range in size from microscopic, unicellular protists to large, multicellular forms grouped into the informal seaweed category. The red algae life cycle is an alternation of generations. Some species of red algae contain phycoerythrins, photosynthetic accessory pigments that are red in color and outcompete the green tint of chlorophyll, making these species appear as varying shades of red. Other protists classified as red algae lack phycoerythrins and are parasites. Red algae are common in tropical waters where they have been detected at depths of 260 meters. Other red algae exist in terrestrial or freshwater environments.

Green algae: chlorophytes and charophytes

The most abundant group of algae is the green algae. The green algae exhibit similar features to the land plants, particularly in terms of chloroplast structure. That this group of protists shared a relatively recent common ancestor with land plants is well supported. The green algae are subdivided into the chlorophytes and the charophytes. The charophytes are the closest living relatives to land plants and resemble them in morphology and reproductive strategies. Charophytes are common in wet habitats, and their presence often signals a healthy ecosystem.

The chlorophytes exhibit great diversity of form and function. Chlorophytes primarily inhabit freshwater and damp soil, and are a common component of plankton. Chlamydomonas is a simple, unicellular chlorophyte with a pear-shaped morphology and two opposing, anterior flagella that guide this protist toward light sensed by its eyespot. More complex chlorophyte species exhibit haploid gametes and spores that resemble Chlamydomonas .

The chlorophyte Volvox is one of only a few examples of a colonial organism, which behaves in some ways like a collection of individual cells, but in other ways like the specialized cells of a multicellular organism ( [link] ). Volvox colonies contain 500 to 60,000 cells, each with two flagella, contained within a hollow, spherical matrix composed of a gelatinous glycoprotein secretion. Individual Volvox cells move in a coordinated fashion and are interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges. Only a few of the cells reproduce to create daughter colonies, an example of basic cell specialization in this organism.

Questions & Answers

what is hormones
Igwe Reply
hormon is the chemical messanger
Sneha
Genes can make someone dull?
Taperah
21ecological instrument and their diagrams
Ayomide Reply
what are the kidney disease
Immaculate Reply
kidney stones
Gracelyne
it is a disease that affects the kidney
Miriam
what are some lung diseases
Gracelyne
what is micro-organism
Jackson Reply
what is the hypothesis
Jackson
hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon
Miriam
hypothesis is raw materials
KP
what is biology
KP
biology is the study of living things and their interaction with their environment
Miriam
what does mean stigma
Amira Reply
what is the full of the MOST dangerous disease in the world where one stops sleeping and just dies :Hint ; FFI
God Reply
fatal familial insomnia which affects the thalamus
Miriam
there are other dangerous diseases like CAD i.e coronary artery disease
Miriam
what is matter
Thomas Reply
it is any thing that has weight and occupies space
Anye
matter is any substances that occupies spaces and has mass
Jackson
describe photosynthesis
Mavis Reply
What is equilibrium
Mavis
What is equilibrium
Mavis
like corporal intern balance right?
FRANCISCA
on my own understanding is just a balanced state
Stanley
photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other organisms convert light energy to chemical energy
Miriam
what is a chromosome?
Wise Reply
Are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.
Canab
thx
Wise
what are the difference between Biotic community and Ecological nitche.
Ganiyat Reply
what is the celll
KAMOLIKA Reply
A cell is the simplest bit of living matter that exist independently
Ganiyat
cell is the basic unit of life
Shadrack
what is ecdysis
Shadrack
what is genetics
Sebastian Reply
The cell is the simplest bit of living matter that can exist independently.
Ganiyat
what happenes when the cell of an organism Is removed?
Isaac Reply
The cell will not function properly
Eunice
what is cell
Maarig Reply
cell is stractural and functional unit of our human body.
Rohini
The study of cells are referred to as?
Kenneth Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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