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Ncpea education leadership review: portland conference special edition, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011)

This manuscript has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this module is published in the Education Leadership Review: Special Portland Conference Issue (October 2011) , ISSN 1532-0723. Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton and Brad Bizzell, Virginia Tech and Janet Tareilo, Stephen F. Austin State University.

Purposes of the study

The educational reform movement in the United States has dramatically changed the role, the relationships, and the responsibilities of the superintendent of schools over the past decade. The involvement and mandates from federal and state governments have eroded local autonomy. Voices from the general public, along with business leaders and political leaders-- from the President of the United States to members of Congress are-- demanding higher accountability and increased achievement for all public schools. The lackluster performance by students on national (NAEP) and international (PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS) assessments has also raised questions regarding the ability of this country to compete in a global economy. Demands for effective leadership at the superintendent level have never been greater.

The quality and effectiveness of PK-12 public education has been a focus of education critics for decades. Politicians, business leaders, and even some educators have consistently questioned the efficacy of public schools. More recently, these stakeholders have focused their criticisms on school leadership and, in particular, university principal preparation programs.

Some researchers have gained prominence by questioning how well university educational leadership programs prepare principals (Brown, 2006; Darling-Hammond, LaPoint&Meyerson, 2005; Levine, 2005). Levine called for significant changes in the content, activities, and structure of principal preparation programs. Other groups such as the Southern Regional Education Board (2005) highlighted perceived deficiencies in principal preparation program and pushed its agenda for substantial educational leadership program reforms. In some states, these reform efforts have led to state-mandated initiatives designed to increase both the content and rigor of principal preparation program requirements.

While most recent research has examined primarily school-level leadership, the next logical step is to extend the reform focus to district-level leader preparation. Already, researchers are documenting the role of effective superintendents in school improvement and increased student achievement.

Marzano and Waters (2009) identify what superintendents both need to know and do to improve schools and increase student achievement. Superintendent preparation programs and educational leadership professors will undoubtedly come under the reform microscope. As the quality of superintendent preparation programs is examined, many stakeholders will participate in the superintendent preparation debate. One group which must be heard during this discussion is public school superintendents themselves. As district leaders, they are uniquely positioned to provide a critical perspective into effective district-level leadership.

Questions & Answers

why should a firm close down when it's unable to pay it's variable cost?
what is oligopolistic competitive market?
exchange of goods and services between countries is call
Hosea Reply
foreign trade
what is constant opportunity cost
Tiffany Reply
Constant opportunity cost means the value of sacrifice remains constant in every step.
Gross Domestic Product GDP
Yusuf Reply
what is g d p
Jayapal Reply
gross daily performance
How best can a poor country respond to an economic crisis , what does it have to sacrifice.
Bah Reply
they should pay tax as progressive system and should make sacrifice for taxation of their income and land etc
how have the nations tries to solve the problem of scarcity in their economies?
Amani Reply
total concentration on to reduce the per unit cost of commodity by technically or whatever
explain what will happen to producer of green coconut now that we have to lockdown in the kingdom of tonga
Tuha Reply
the demand for coconut will decrease and supply increases which result in the decrease in the price of coconut and the coconut will be more elastic
tonga is producing more long run economic good explain the meaning of the statement and its implication on the tonga economy
Tuha Reply
Demand is the various quantities of goods and services that consumer(s)are willing and able to purchase at a price within a time
Muhammad Reply
What is demand
Mc Reply
demand relates with the need of people for their satisfaction.
demand is de amount of goods and services a consumer us willing to purchase at a given price over a given period of time
riDemand is the amount of good and services which consumers are willing and able to buy at a particular peroid of time and at a given price
Yes that is the tire thing
Demand is the quantity of goods and services which consumers are willing and able to purchase at a given price over a period of time
simply , Demand is the sum up of 1)- desire of the commodity 2)- purchasing power for that commodity
demand is the amount of goods and service wen consumers are willing and able to buy them at a give time
Distinguish between cross elasticity and income elasticity of demand
Ruth Reply
Distinguish between cross elasticity and income elasticity of demand
if change in the demand of the commodity with respect to change in demand of the substitute or other product called cross elasticity
and. if change in the demand of the commodity due to change in the income . called income elasticity
Cross elasticity of demand is the degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded of a commodity to a small change in price of another commodity whiles Income elasticity of demand is the degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded of a commodity to a small change in income of it's consumers
but these are book wordings
income elasticity of demand shows how quantity demanded changes due to changes in income on the other hand cross elasticity refers to how the quantity demanded of a particular good alers given a change in the price of another good.
what is the competitive demand
Adiza Reply
Competitive demand are those commodity dat are competitive in nature e.g the close up and my my toothpaste the increase in price of close up may bring abt decrease in demand of it and it will serve as increase in purchase of my my
With regards to coal shortage and manicipal debts the what form of intervention do you think Eskom can put in place.
kedibone Reply
economic growth of Bhutan
Nima Reply
please, explain all the mathematics terms used in economics
The answer is: little more than high school algebra and graphs.
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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