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Ncpea education leadership review: portland conference special edition, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011)

This manuscript has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this module is published in the Education Leadership Review: Special Portland Conference Issue (October 2011) , ISSN 1532-0723. Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton and Brad Bizzell, Virginia Tech and Janet Tareilo, Stephen F. Austin State University.

Purposes of the study

The educational reform movement in the United States has dramatically changed the role, the relationships, and the responsibilities of the superintendent of schools over the past decade. The involvement and mandates from federal and state governments have eroded local autonomy. Voices from the general public, along with business leaders and political leaders-- from the President of the United States to members of Congress are-- demanding higher accountability and increased achievement for all public schools. The lackluster performance by students on national (NAEP) and international (PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS) assessments has also raised questions regarding the ability of this country to compete in a global economy. Demands for effective leadership at the superintendent level have never been greater.

The quality and effectiveness of PK-12 public education has been a focus of education critics for decades. Politicians, business leaders, and even some educators have consistently questioned the efficacy of public schools. More recently, these stakeholders have focused their criticisms on school leadership and, in particular, university principal preparation programs.

Some researchers have gained prominence by questioning how well university educational leadership programs prepare principals (Brown, 2006; Darling-Hammond, LaPoint&Meyerson, 2005; Levine, 2005). Levine called for significant changes in the content, activities, and structure of principal preparation programs. Other groups such as the Southern Regional Education Board (2005) highlighted perceived deficiencies in principal preparation program and pushed its agenda for substantial educational leadership program reforms. In some states, these reform efforts have led to state-mandated initiatives designed to increase both the content and rigor of principal preparation program requirements.

While most recent research has examined primarily school-level leadership, the next logical step is to extend the reform focus to district-level leader preparation. Already, researchers are documenting the role of effective superintendents in school improvement and increased student achievement.

Marzano and Waters (2009) identify what superintendents both need to know and do to improve schools and increase student achievement. Superintendent preparation programs and educational leadership professors will undoubtedly come under the reform microscope. As the quality of superintendent preparation programs is examined, many stakeholders will participate in the superintendent preparation debate. One group which must be heard during this discussion is public school superintendents themselves. As district leaders, they are uniquely positioned to provide a critical perspective into effective district-level leadership.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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