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Ncpea education leadership review: portland conference special edition, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011)

This manuscript has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this module is published in the Education Leadership Review: Portland Conference Special Edition Issue, Volume 6, Number 3 (October, 2011), ISSN 1532-0723. Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton and Brad Bizzell, Virginia Tech and Janet Tareilo, Stephen F. Austin State University.

Introduction

Increasingly public schools are criticized from many stakeholders. These criticisms create suggested reform and implementation of those reforms. Public school leaders have been responsive to reform efforts during the different eras in American history. However, some reforms have been initiated with little understanding of past reforms (Sarason, 1993). Time is needed to re-examine past reforms, the leaders behind the reforms, and the legislative acts that impacted the reforms for the purpose of understanding the reforms in the context of history.

The importance of historical examination is not new as it was presented earlier by Tyack and Cuban (1995) because “institutions and people are the product of history and they interpret past events when they make choices about the present and future” (p. 6). Other authors suggested that a majority of reforms have been simple redesigns, reforms around peripheral issues, or different names for similar initiatives (Fullan, 2010; Lunenburg, 2011; Reese, 2011). Cuban (1990) stated that reforms could be called first order changes or second order changes for how they played out in classrooms. One example of a reform was a first order change in the Chicago schools. Byrk, Sebring, Allensworth, Luppesca,&Easton (2010) identified the changes in the Chicago Schools around instructional guidance, professional capacity, learning climate, and parent/community relations. They found that leadership was a key force of the changes in order for there to be improvements. Others have also identified the principal’s leadership style, teacher’s professional community, and assistance rather than contextual variables of the school (Kurki, Boyle,&Aladjem, 2006).

The discourse analysis of this study examined the nature of the words in speeches and legislation juxtaposed against social, economic, and political contexts that actually guided the educational leaders to implement the reforms. It is this examination that can help current educational leaders more clearly understand school reforms (Woodside-Jiron&Gehsmann, 2009). As Katz (1975) stated, “no historian can entirely divorce the categories with which he approaches the contemporary world from those with which he studies the past” (p.xxiii).

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study focused on leaders’ speeches and legislative acts that impacted public education and reforms over the last 100 years. This analysis was conducted to present a clearer understanding of the different reforms, their impact on school improvement, the sustainability of the reforms, and educate leaders on future decisions for reform in the United States. Further, the study examined the political and social influences by using a historical comparative analysis with a linguistic examination of presidential speeches and legislative acts.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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