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Ncpea education leadership review: portland conference special edition, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011)

This manuscript has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this module is published in the Education Leadership Review: Portland Conference Special Edition Issue, Volume 6, Number 3 (October, 2011), ISSN 1532-0723. Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton and Brad Bizzell, Virginia Tech and Janet Tareilo, Stephen F. Austin State University.


Increasingly public schools are criticized from many stakeholders. These criticisms create suggested reform and implementation of those reforms. Public school leaders have been responsive to reform efforts during the different eras in American history. However, some reforms have been initiated with little understanding of past reforms (Sarason, 1993). Time is needed to re-examine past reforms, the leaders behind the reforms, and the legislative acts that impacted the reforms for the purpose of understanding the reforms in the context of history.

The importance of historical examination is not new as it was presented earlier by Tyack and Cuban (1995) because “institutions and people are the product of history and they interpret past events when they make choices about the present and future” (p. 6). Other authors suggested that a majority of reforms have been simple redesigns, reforms around peripheral issues, or different names for similar initiatives (Fullan, 2010; Lunenburg, 2011; Reese, 2011). Cuban (1990) stated that reforms could be called first order changes or second order changes for how they played out in classrooms. One example of a reform was a first order change in the Chicago schools. Byrk, Sebring, Allensworth, Luppesca,&Easton (2010) identified the changes in the Chicago Schools around instructional guidance, professional capacity, learning climate, and parent/community relations. They found that leadership was a key force of the changes in order for there to be improvements. Others have also identified the principal’s leadership style, teacher’s professional community, and assistance rather than contextual variables of the school (Kurki, Boyle,&Aladjem, 2006).

The discourse analysis of this study examined the nature of the words in speeches and legislation juxtaposed against social, economic, and political contexts that actually guided the educational leaders to implement the reforms. It is this examination that can help current educational leaders more clearly understand school reforms (Woodside-Jiron&Gehsmann, 2009). As Katz (1975) stated, “no historian can entirely divorce the categories with which he approaches the contemporary world from those with which he studies the past” (p.xxiii).

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study focused on leaders’ speeches and legislative acts that impacted public education and reforms over the last 100 years. This analysis was conducted to present a clearer understanding of the different reforms, their impact on school improvement, the sustainability of the reforms, and educate leaders on future decisions for reform in the United States. Further, the study examined the political and social influences by using a historical comparative analysis with a linguistic examination of presidential speeches and legislative acts.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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