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Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion    are movements at the ankle joint, which is a hinge joint. Lifting the front of the foot, so that the top of the foot moves toward the anterior leg is dorsiflexion, while lifting the heel of the foot from the ground or pointing the toes downward is plantar flexion. These are the only movements available at the ankle joint (see [link] h ).

Inversion and eversion

Inversion and eversion are complex movements that involve the multiple plane joints among the tarsal bones of the posterior foot (intertarsal joints) and thus are not motions that take place at the ankle joint. Inversion is the turning of the foot to angle the bottom of the foot toward the midline, while eversion    turns the bottom of the foot away from the midline. The foot has a greater range of inversion than eversion motion. These are important motions that help to stabilize the foot when walking or running on an uneven surface and aid in the quick side-to-side changes in direction used during active sports such as basketball, racquetball, or soccer (see [link] i ).

Protraction and retraction

Protraction and retraction    are anterior-posterior movements of the scapula or mandible. Protraction of the scapula occurs when the shoulder is moved forward, as when pushing against something or throwing a ball. Retraction is the opposite motion, with the scapula being pulled posteriorly and medially, toward the vertebral column. For the mandible, protraction occurs when the lower jaw is pushed forward, to stick out the chin, while retraction pulls the lower jaw backward. (See [link] j .)

Depression and elevation

Depression and elevation    are downward and upward movements of the scapula or mandible. The upward movement of the scapula and shoulder is elevation, while a downward movement is depression. These movements are used to shrug your shoulders. Similarly, elevation of the mandible is the upward movement of the lower jaw used to close the mouth or bite on something, and depression is the downward movement that produces opening of the mouth (see [link] k ).


Excursion is the side to side movement of the mandible. Lateral excursion moves the mandible away from the midline, toward either the right or left side. Medial excursion returns the mandible to its resting position at the midline.

Superior rotation and inferior rotation

Superior and inferior rotation are movements of the scapula and are defined by the direction of movement of the glenoid cavity. These motions involve rotation of the scapula around a point inferior to the scapular spine and are produced by combinations of muscles acting on the scapula. During superior rotation    , the glenoid cavity moves upward as the medial end of the scapular spine moves downward. This is a very important motion that contributes to upper limb abduction. Without superior rotation of the scapula, the greater tubercle of the humerus would hit the acromion of the scapula, thus preventing any abduction of the arm above shoulder height. Superior rotation of the scapula is thus required for full abduction of the upper limb. Superior rotation is also used without arm abduction when carrying a heavy load with your hand or on your shoulder. You can feel this rotation when you pick up a load, such as a heavy book bag and carry it on only one shoulder. To increase its weight-bearing support for the bag, the shoulder lifts as the scapula superiorly rotates. Inferior rotation occurs during limb adduction and involves the downward motion of the glenoid cavity with upward movement of the medial end of the scapular spine.

Questions & Answers

the diagram of cell membrane
Teboh Reply
***bit.ly/3kfrdfV Link to cell membrane diagram and more info... Remember, you can search the A&P book.
describe diffusion as used in body fluid movement
brenda Reply
how was the movement?
classify joint function with example
James Reply
cytoskeleton diagram
Miriam Reply
two types of cells biological name
eukaryotic and prokaryotic
Difference between extracellular and intracellular
Eli Reply
extra (exit) outside the cell, intra inside the cell
extracellular is 1/3 of total body water...intracellular 2/3 of total body water
what is culture?
is the way of life of people
He meant in the context of biology...as in "tissue culture".
what does depolarization mean...in terms of the cardiovascular system?
depolarization means contraction
Depolarization, in the context of nerve and muscle tissue, is the decrease in membrane potential (the separation of charge between the extracellular and intracellular compartments). Basically, the charge in the cell becomes more positive when depolarization occurs.
In fact, the word 'polarize' used to mean dividing into extremes or opposite sides. The opposite is true for 'depolarize'
intracellular fluid is the fluid compartment of the body consisting of all water present within the cell...while extracellular fluid is water present out of the cell
Why apoptosis is important?
Duchess Reply
name the body organ which helps in the oxygenation of body.
Eli Reply
respiratory system (lungs) brings in oxygen...cardiovascular system (blood) circulate it
the heart
Mpho explain
cells... tissues...organs
Angel Reply
...organ system...organism...species...population...
connection between respiratory and circulatory system
Philip Reply
what's respiratory system
what is the site of CHON synthesis?
send them boi
dont send via email...use google drive
Which major organ lies deep to the right hypochondriac region?
Biswajit Reply
deep as in most posterior kidney, or deep as in inferior small intestine?
what is the weakest muscle in the body?
zharla Reply
Connective tissues composed with the blood
blood cell
Why is left bronchi narrow?
what is the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body?
Aila Reply
why most we study anatomy
Xavier Reply
analyse the structure and function of the brainstem
Clinton Reply

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