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Part a shows two men in yellow raingear hosing off oil-drenched rocks on a sea-shore. Part b shows an oil-drenched bird sitting in oily water.
(a) Cleaning up oil after the Valdez spill in Alaska, the workers hosed oil from beaches and then used a floating boom to corral the oil, which was finally skimmed from the water surface. Some species of bacteria are able to solubilize and degrade the oil. (b) One of the most catastrophic consequences of oil spills is the damage to fauna. (credit a: modification of work by NOAA; credit b: modification of work by GOLUBENKOV, NGO: Saving Taman)

Prokaryotes in and on the body

Humans are no exception when it comes to forming symbiotic relationships with prokaryotes. We are accustomed to thinking of ourselves as single organisms, but in reality, we are walking ecosystems. There are 10 to 100 times as many bacterial and archaeal cells inhabiting our bodies as we have cells in our bodies. Some of these are in mutually beneficial relationships with us, in which both the human host and the bacterium benefit, while some of the relationships are classified as commensalism    , a type of relationship in which the bacterium benefits and the human host is neither benefited nor harmed.

Human gut flora lives in the large intestine and consists of hundreds of species of bacteria and archaea, with different individuals containing different species mixes. The term “flora,” which is usually associated with plants, is traditionally used in this context because bacteria were once classified as plants. The primary functions of these prokaryotes for humans appear to be metabolism of food molecules that we cannot break down, assistance with the absorption of ions by the colon, synthesis of vitamin K, training of the infant immune system, maintenance of the adult immune system, maintenance of the epithelium of the large intestine, and formation of a protective barrier against pathogens.

The surface of the skin is also coated with prokaryotes. The different surfaces of the skin, such as the underarms, the head, and the hands, provide different habitats for different communities of prokaryotes. Unlike with gut flora, the possible beneficial roles of skin flora have not been well studied. However, the few studies conducted so far have identified bacteria that produce antimicrobial compounds as probably responsible for preventing infections by pathogenic bacteria.

Researchers are actively studying the relationships between various diseases and alterations to the composition of human microbial flora. Some of this work is being carried out by the Human Microbiome Project, funded in the United States by the National Institutes of Health.

Section summary

Prokaryotes existed for billions of years before plants and animals appeared. Microbial mats are thought to represent the earliest forms of life on Earth, and there is fossil evidence, called stromatolites, of their presence about 3.5 billion years ago. During the first 2 billion years, the atmosphere was anoxic and only anaerobic organisms were able to live. Cyanobacteria began the oxygenation of the atmosphere. The increase in oxygen concentration allowed the evolution of other life forms.

Prokaryotes (domains Archaea and Bacteria) are single-celled organisms lacking a nucleus. They have a single piece of circular DNA in the nucleoid area of the cell. Most prokaryotes have cell wall outside the plasma membrane. Bacteria and Archaea differ in the compositions of their cell membranes and the characteristics of their cell walls.

Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan. Archaean cell walls do not have peptidoglycan. Bacteria can be divided into two major groups: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. Gram-positive organisms have a thick cell wall. Gram-negative organisms have a thin cell wall and an outer membrane. Prokaryotes use diverse sources of energy to assemble macromolecules from smaller molecules. Phototrophs obtain their energy from sunlight, whereas chemotrophs obtain it from chemical compounds.

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. The excessive use of antibiotics to control bacterial infections has resulted in resistant forms of bacteria being selected. Foodborne diseases result from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food. Prokaryotes are used in human food products. Microbial bioremediation is the use of microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. The human body contains a huge community of prokaryotes, many of which provide beneficial services such as the development and maintenance of the immune system, nutrition, and protection from pathogens.

Art connections

[link] Which of the following statements is true?

  1. Gram-positive bacteria have a single cell wall formed from peptidoglycan.
  2. Gram-positive bacteria have an outer membrane.
  3. The cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is thick, and the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is thin.
  4. Gram-negative bacteria have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, while Gram-positive bacteria have a cell wall made of phospholipids.

[link] A

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Questions & Answers

why too much insulin result in low blood sugar
Leri Reply
difference between DNA and RNA
Eyitayo Reply
DNA is deoxyribonuclaic acid. Deoxy refers to a lack of oxygen. The Ribose moity is missing an OH group. I think it is missing from the second C of the ring. RNA is ribonucleic acid. DNA has our genetic code in on it. RNA is translated from DNA and carries the blue print for protein synthesis.
The OH group on RNA prevents it from being reactive. But it is very unstable though. Would you want such a power tool floating around in your body, no. And you have three types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. Please let me know it this helped?😄
what determines the aeration level in the soil
Shola Reply
what is homeostasis?
Sarita Reply
What is biology
Don Reply
Biology z the study of life
what's biology
biology is the study of living nd none living organism
Biology is the study of life
yes Sir
what's cell biology
biology is the study of life
what is asexual reproduction,?
Awoi Reply
A type of reproduction which does not involve the fusion of gametes or a change in the number of chromosomes
Reproduction without sex... In which form a single organism or cell makes a copy of itself.
Please explain the concept of mitosis and meiosis
I guess you could use it for study buddies and brushing up on what you need to
what is mitosis
Asexual reproduction?
why pepsin and trypsin released in active form?
mitosis is the type cell division in which two daughter cells have same no. of chormosomes
chromosome number remains the same in mitosis
Yrr help me.
Physical chemistry..... Koi h jo mujhe physical chem ki notes send kr ske
what is asexual reproduction
what makes golgi body in plants
Abdulkareem Reply
name the membrane of the plants
how can turners syndrome be corrected before birth
which animal survive from being preyed just because of being humble, slow, and not aggressive
Plants have golgi body's also. Plants are eukaryotic cells. And membrane bound organelles are a characteristic of eukaryotic cells. Moreover golgi body's are creatted from the ER. Also do not forget plants have plastids and animal cells do not.
During organs transplantation, the organs cannot be taken from just anybody since the graft would be rejected sooner or later due to
Liter Reply
Non-MHC compatibility on the organ and an attack from the patient's immune system.
what makes golgi body in plants
why trypsin and pepsin released in active form
Let us remember MHC'S on our cells. This is how our cells determine self from n o n s e l f. Transplanted tissue has to have a certain amount markers. These have to match to the recipiant's markers. Even with this, immunosuppresant medacine is prescribed to the recipient.
Even with these measures the body may still reject the transport. This can occur even after the recipient excepting the transport for some time.
what is integument system
Joy Reply
This system is our skin. This includes the skin lining our alimentary system which includes the tissue from our mouth to our anus. Our skin is our largest organ system. It is mostly made up of epithelial tissue.
Cellular respiration
Lucy Reply
This is how our cells make energy. They use glucose + oxygen. There are other facors involves also. But these are the main two reactant used, for aerobic respiration. The main product is ATP. ATP is a high energy molecule which is paramount for life.
what are the characteristics of living things
Ruth Reply
Movement Respiration Nutrition/Feeding Irritability/Sensitivity Growth Excretion Reproduction Deat/Life span
What makes children from the same father and mother sometimes don't look alike?
One of the main one's is the abilit reproduce. That is why viruses are not considered living. Because they do not have the ability to replicate on they own.
identification of problems
Nana Reply
what happens in the process of raising the human arms
what is biology
Brandi Reply
first step in scientific method
The study of living things.
In an investigation the pancreatic duct of a mammal was blocked.It was found that the blood sugar regulation remained normal while food digestion was impaired.Explain
Mac Reply
To begin with, obstruction of pancreatic duct will alter the blood sugar level as the juices responsible for glucose regulation will be rendered inconsequential. This will in turn affect the rate of digestion and absorbtion of digested food substances by the Villus .
characteristics of algae
Algae are eukaryotic organisms. Algae do not have roots and stems. Algae have chlorophyll and helps in carrying out photosynthesis.

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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9
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