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Cellphone users are recommended to minimise their exposure to the radiation, by for example:

  1. Use hands-free to decrease the radiation to the head.
  2. Keep the mobile phone away from the body.
  3. Do not telephone in a car without an external antenna.

Exercise - penetrating ability of em radiation

  1. Indicate the penetrating ability of the different kinds of EM radiation and relate it to energy of the radiation.
  2. Describe the dangers of gamma rays, X-rays and the damaging effect of ultra-violet radiation on skin.


  1. Electromagnetic radiation has both a wave and a particle nature.
  2. Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of 3 × 10 8 m · s - 1 in a vacuum.
  3. The Electromagnetic spectrum consists of the follwing types of radiation: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma-rays.
  4. Gamma-rays have the most energy and are the most penetrating, while radio waves have the lowest energy and are the least penetrating.

Indigenous knowledge systems: animal behaviour

People have believed that animals can predict earthquakes and other natural disasters for centuries. As early as 373 B.C., historians recorded a massive exodus of animals, including rats, snakes and weasels, from the Greek city of Helice days before a quake struck causing massive devastation.

This topic is much debated and there are people that claim different behaviours for different kinds of animals, for example:

  • Dogs and cats : are believed by some to howl or bite their owners before natural disasters, they cite factors like a much stronger sense of smell.
  • Sharks : have been reported to move to deeper water before hurricanes, possibly because a sensitivity to changes in the air pressure preceding the hurricane.
  • Elephants : will allegedly trumpet and flee to higher ground before a tsunami arrived.

Others argue that many animals detect certain natural signals, such as the early tremblings of an earthquake, long before humans. This means they have opportunity to react before we can but argue that they exhibit no special understanding, they just flee as would any person hearing a shout of fire.

Another problem cited with these seemingly clairvoyant animals is that their psychic powers often are based on behaviors that people only recall after the event. Some animal behaviors happen frequently, but are not remembered unless an earthquake, tsunami, or mud slide follows. For example, if you see a dog cross a road, you just remember you saw a dog cross the road. But if an earthquake shook your neighborhood five minutes later, would you say the dog was fleeing?

Project: indigenous knowledge: animals and natural disasters.

Carry out research on the behavior of animals before natural disasters.

Pick one type of natural disaster (earthquake, flood, tsunami, etc.) and see what you can find about animals reacting to that type of disaster. Ask people you know about what they have heard to get a sense of folklore.

Then research the topic to find more information and remember to critically assess all information. Things to consider:

  • What scientific research has been conducted?
  • Which countries does that type of disaster usually occur in?
  • Do any of the native people of that country have legends/ideas about animals reacting to the disaster?
  • What do people believe leads to this behavior? i.e. do the animals have some mystic ability or are they more sensitive to anything then we are (such as low frequency radiation)

Present your findings to your class. Critically analyze all the information you collect and decide what you believe.

End of chapter exercise

  1. What is the energy of a photon of EM radiation with a frequency of 3 × 10 8  Hz?
  2. What is the energy of a photon of light with a wavelength of 660 nm?
  3. List the main types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength.
  4. List the main uses of:
    1. radio waves
    2. infrared
    3. gamma rays
    4. X-rays
  5. Explain why we need to protect ourselves from ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
  6. List some advantages and disadvantages of using X-rays.
  7. What precautions should we take when using cell phones?
  8. Write a short essay on a type of electromagnetic waves. You should look at uses, advantages and disadvantages of your chosen radiation.
  9. Explain why some types of electromagnetic radiation are more penetrating than others.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Mukesh Reply
Properties of longitudinal waves
Sharoon Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11305/1.7
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