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Why are the forces exerted on the outside world by the limbs of our bodies usually much smaller than the forces exerted by muscles inside the body?

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Explain why the forces in our joints are several times larger than the forces we exert on the outside world with our limbs. Can these forces be even greater than muscle forces (see previous Question)?

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What is the mechanical advantage of a nail puller—similar to the one shown in [link] —where you exert a force 45 cm size 12{"45"`"cm"} {} from the pivot and the nail is 1.8 cm size 12{1 "." 8`"cm"} {} on the other side? What minimum force must you exert to apply a force of 1250 N size 12{"1250"`N} {} to the nail?


50 N

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Suppose you needed to raise a 250-kg mower a distance of 6.0 cm above the ground to change a tire. If you had a 2.0-m long lever, where would you place the fulcrum if your force was limited to 300 N?

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a) What is the mechanical advantage of a wheelbarrow, such as the one in [link] , if the center of gravity of the wheelbarrow and its load has a perpendicular lever arm of 5.50 cm, while the hands have a perpendicular lever arm of 1.02 m? (b) What upward force should you exert to support the wheelbarrow and its load if their combined mass is 55.0 kg? (c) What force does the wheel exert on the ground?

a) MA = 18 . 5 size 12{"MA"="18" "." 5} {}

b) F i = 29.1 N size 12{F rSub { size 8{i} } ="29" "." 1`N} {}

c) 510 N downward

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A typical car has an axle with 1 . 10 cm size 12{1 "." "10"`"cm"} {} radius driving a tire with a radius of 27 .5 cm size 12{"27" "." 5`"cm"} {} . What is its mechanical advantage assuming the very simplified model in [link] (b)?

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What force does the nail puller in [link] exert on the supporting surface? The nail puller has a mass of 2.10 kg.

1 . 3 × 10 3 N size 12{1 "." "30" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `N} {}

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If you used an ideal pulley of the type shown in [link] (a) to support a car engine of mass 115 kg size 12{"115"`"kg"} {} , (a) What would be the tension in the rope? (b) What force must the ceiling supply, assuming you pull straight down on the rope? Neglect the pulley system's mass.

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Repeat [link] for the pulley shown in [link] (c), assuming you pull straight up on the rope. The pulley system's mass is 7.00 kg size 12{7 "." "00"`"kg"} {} .

a) T = 299 N size 12{T="299"`N} {}

b) 897 N upward

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Test prep for ap courses

As a young student, you likely learned that simple machines are capable of increasing the ability to lift and move objects. Now, as an educated AP Physics student, you are aware that this capability is governed by the relationship between force and torque.

In the space below, explain why torque is integral to the increase in force created by a simple machine. You may use an example or diagram to assist in your explanation. Be sure to cite the mechanical advantage in your explanation as well.

The student should mention that the guiding principle behind simple machines is the second condition of equilibrium. Though the torque leaving a machine must be equivalent to torque entering a machine, the same requirement does not exist for forces. As a result, by decreasing the lever arm to the existing force, the size of the existing force will be increased. The mechanical advantage will be equivalent to the ratio of the forces exiting and entering the machine.

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Figure 9.24(a) shows a wheelbarrow being lifted by an applied force F i . If the wheelbarrow is filled with twenty bricks massing 3 kg each, estimate the value of the applied force F i . Provide an explanation behind the total weight w and any reasoning toward your final answer. Additionally, provide a range of values over which you feel the force could exist.

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Questions & Answers

what is angular velocity
Obaapa Reply
Why does earth exert only a tiny downward pull?
Mya Reply
Why is light bright?
Abraham Reply
what is radioactive element
Attah Reply
an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
Aisha Reply
thanks so much. i undersooth well
Valdes Reply
what is physics
Nwafor Reply
is the study of matter in relation to energy
a submersible pump is dropped a borehole and hits the level of water at the bottom of the borehole 5 seconds later.determine the level of water in the borehole
Obrian Reply
what is power?
aron Reply
power P = Work done per second W/ t. It means the more power, the stronger machine
e.g. heart Uses 2 W per beat.
A spherica, concave shaving mirror has a radius of curvature of 32 cm .what is the magnification of a persons face. when it is 12cm to the left of the vertex of the mirror
Alona Reply
did you solve?
my name is Abu m.konnek I am a student of a electrical engineer and I want you to help me
the magnification k = f/(f-d) with focus f = R/2 =16 cm; d =12 cm k = 16/4 =4
what do we call velocity
A weather vane is some sort of directional arrow parallel to the ground that may rotate freely in a horizontal plane. A typical weather vane has a large cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction the arrow is pointing, like a “One Way” street sign. The purpose of the weather vane is to indicate the direction of the wind. As wind blows pa
Kavita Reply
what about the wind vane
If a prism is fully imersed in water then the ray of light will normally dispersed or their is any difference?
Anurag Reply
the same behavior thru the prism out or in water bud abbot
If this will experimented with a hollow(vaccum) prism in water then what will be result ?
What was the previous far point of a patient who had laser correction that reduced the power of her eye by 7.00 D, producing a normal distant vision power of 50.0 D for her?
Jaydie Reply
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
A young woman with normal distant vision has a 10.0% ability to accommodate (that is, increase) the power of her eyes. What is the closest object she can see clearly?
29/20 ? maybes
In what ways does physics affect the society both positively or negatively
Princewill Reply
how can I read physics...am finding it difficult to understand...pls help
rerry Reply
try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
hope that helps
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11844/1.14
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