# 9.5 Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor  (Page 2/2)

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A strong magnetic field is applied across a tube and a current is passed through the fluid at right angles to the field, resulting in a force on the fluid parallel to the tube axis as shown. The absence of moving parts makes this attractive for moving a hot, chemically active substance, such as the liquid sodium employed in some nuclear reactors. Experimental artificial hearts are testing with this technique for pumping blood, perhaps circumventing the adverse effects of mechanical pumps. (Cell membranes, however, are affected by the large fields needed in MHD, delaying its practical application in humans.) MHD propulsion for nuclear submarines has been proposed, because it could be considerably quieter than conventional propeller drives. The deterrent value of nuclear submarines is based on their ability to hide and survive a first or second nuclear strike. As we slowly disassemble our nuclear weapons arsenals, the submarine branch will be the last to be decommissioned because of this ability (See [link] .) Existing MHD drives are heavy and inefficient—much development work is needed.

## Section summary

• The magnetic force on current-carrying conductors (when current direction and magnetic field direction are perpendicular) is given by
$F=IlB,$
where $I$ is the current, $l$ is the length of a straight conductor in a uniform magnetic field $B$ , and $I\perp B$ . The force follows RHR-1 with the thumb in the direction of $I$ .

## Conceptual questions

Draw a sketch of the situation in [link] showing the direction of electrons carrying the current, and use RHR-1 to verify the direction of the force on the wire.

Verify that the direction of the force in an MHD drive, such as that in [link] , does not depend on the sign of the charges carrying the current across the fluid.

Why would a magnetohydrodynamic drive work better in ocean water than in fresh water? Also, why would superconducting magnets be desirable?

Which is more likely to interfere with compass readings, AC current in your refrigerator or DC current when you start your car? Explain.

## Problems&Exercises

What is the direction of the magnetic force on the current in each of the six cases in [link] ? Note that $\odot$ indicates "coming out of the page" and $\otimes$ means "going into the page."

(a) west (left)

(b) into page

(c) north (up)

(d) no force

(e) east (right)

(f) south (down)

What is the direction of a current that experiences the magnetic force shown in each of the three cases in [link] , assuming the current runs perpendicular to $B$ ? Note that $\odot$ indicates "coming out of the page" and $\otimes$ means "going into the page."

What is the direction of the magnetic field that produces the magnetic force shown on the currents in each of the three cases in [link] , assuming $\mathbf{\text{B}}$ is perpendicular to $\mathbf{\text{I}}$ ? Note that $\otimes$ means "going into the page."

(a) into page

(b) west (left)

(c) out of page

(a) What is the force per meter on a lightning bolt at the equator that carries 20,000 A perpendicular to the Earth’s $3\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{-5}\text{-T}$ field? (b) What is the direction of the force if the current is straight up and the Earth’s field direction is due north, parallel to the ground?

(a) A DC power line for a light-rail system carries 1000 A. If Earth’s magnetic field at this location is $5.00×{10}^{-5}$ T, what is the maximum possible magnetic force on a 100-m section of this line? (b) Discuss practical concerns this presents, if any.

(a) 5.00 N

(b) This is about a pound of force per 100 m of wire, which is much less than the weight of the wire itself. Therefore, it does not cause any special concerns.

What force is exerted on the water in an MHD drive utilizing a 25.0-cm-diameter tube, if 100-A current is passed across the tube that is perpendicular to a 2.00-T magnetic field? (The relatively small size of this force indicates the need for very large currents and magnetic fields to make practical MHD drives.)

A wire carrying a 30.0-A current passes between the poles of a strong magnet that is perpendicular to its field and experiences a 2.16-N force on the 4.00 cm of wire in the field. What is the average field strength?

1.80 T

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research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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absolutely yes
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
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what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
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fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
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is Bucky paper clear?
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carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
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What is lattice structure?
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or in general
Ebrahim
in general
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Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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China
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types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
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I'm interested in nanotube
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what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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