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Voltages are always measured between two points. Why?
How are units of volts and electron volts related? How do they differ?
Find the ratio of speeds of an electron and a negative hydrogen ion (one having an extra electron) accelerated through the same voltage, assuming non-relativistic final speeds. Take the mass of the hydrogen ion to be $1\text{.}\text{67}\times {\text{10}}^{\u2013\text{27}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\text{.}$
42.8
An evacuated tube uses an accelerating voltage of 40 kV to accelerate electrons to hit a copper plate and produce x rays. Non-relativistically, what would be the maximum speed of these electrons?
A bare helium nucleus has two positive charges and a mass of $6\text{.}\text{64}\times {\text{10}}^{\text{\u201327}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\text{.}$ (a) Calculate its kinetic energy in joules at 2.00% of the speed of light. (b) What is this in electron volts? (c) What voltage would be needed to obtain this energy?
Integrated Concepts
Singly charged gas ions are accelerated from rest through a voltage of 13.0 V. At what temperature will the average kinetic energy of gas molecules be the same as that given these ions?
$1\text{.}\text{00}\times {\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{K}$
Integrated Concepts
The temperature near the center of the Sun is thought to be 15 million degrees Celsius $\left(1.5\times {\text{10}}^{7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{\xbaC}\right)$ . Through what voltage must a singly charged ion be accelerated to have the same energy as the average kinetic energy of ions at this temperature?
Integrated Concepts
(a) What is the average power output of a heart defibrillator that dissipates 400 J of energy in 10.0 ms? (b) Considering the high-power output, why doesn’t the defibrillator produce serious burns?
(a) $4\times {\text{10}}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{W}$
(b) A defibrillator does not cause serious burns because the skin conducts electricity well at high voltages, like those used in defibrillators. The gel used aids in the transfer of energy to the body, and the skin doesn’t absorb the energy, but rather lets it pass through to the heart.
Integrated Concepts
A lightning bolt strikes a tree, moving 20.0 C of charge through a potential difference of $1.00\times {\text{10}}^{\text{2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{MV}$ . (a) What energy was dissipated? (b) What mass of water could be raised from $\text{15\xbaC}$ to the boiling point and then boiled by this energy? (c) Discuss the damage that could be caused to the tree by the expansion of the boiling steam.
Integrated Concepts
A 12.0 V battery-operated bottle warmer heats 50.0 g of glass, $2.50\times {\text{10}}^{\text{2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{g}$ of baby formula, and $2.00\times {\text{10}}^{\text{2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{g}$ of aluminum from $\text{20}\text{.}\mathrm{0\xbaC}$ to $\mathrm{90.0\xbaC}$ . (a) How much charge is moved by the battery? (b) How many electrons per second flow if it takes 5.00 min to warm the formula? (Hint: Assume that the specific heat of baby formula is about the same as the specific heat of water.)
(a) $7\text{.}\text{40}\times {\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{C}$
(b) $1\text{.}\text{54}\times {\text{10}}^{\text{20}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{electrons per second}$
Integrated Concepts
A battery-operated car utilizes a 12.0 V system. Find the charge the batteries must be able to move in order to accelerate the 750 kg car from rest to 25.0 m/s, make it climb a $2.00\times {\text{10}}^{\text{2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ high hill, and then cause it to travel at a constant 25.0 m/s by exerting a $5.00\times {\text{10}}^{\text{2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$ force for an hour.
$3.89\times {\text{10}}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{C}$
Integrated Concepts
Fusion probability is greatly enhanced when appropriate nuclei are brought close together, but mutual Coulomb repulsion must be overcome. This can be done using the kinetic energy of high-temperature gas ions or by accelerating the nuclei toward one another. (a) Calculate the potential energy of two singly charged nuclei separated by $1\text{.}\text{00}\times {\text{10}}^{\text{\u201312}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ by finding the voltage of one at that distance and multiplying by the charge of the other. (b) At what temperature will atoms of a gas have an average kinetic energy equal to this needed electrical potential energy?
Unreasonable Results
(a) Find the voltage near a 10.0 cm diameter metal sphere that has 8.00 C of excess positive charge on it. (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumptions are responsible?
(a) $1.44\times {\text{10}}^{\text{12}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{V}$
(b) This voltage is very high. A 10.0 cm diameter sphere could never maintain this voltage; it would discharge.
(c) An 8.00 C charge is more charge than can reasonably be accumulated on a sphere of that size.
Construct Your Own Problem
Consider a battery used to supply energy to a cellular phone. Construct a problem in which you determine the energy that must be supplied by the battery, and then calculate the amount of charge it must be able to move in order to supply this energy. Among the things to be considered are the energy needs and battery voltage. You may need to look ahead to interpret manufacturer’s battery ratings in ampere-hours as energy in joules.
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