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Section summary

  • Entropy is the loss of energy available to do work.
  • Another form of the second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of a system either increases or remains constant; it never decreases.
  • Entropy is zero in a reversible process; it increases in an irreversible process.
  • The ultimate fate of the universe is likely to be thermodynamic equilibrium, where the universal temperature is constant and no energy is available to do work.
  • Entropy is also associated with the tendency toward disorder in a closed system.

Conceptual questions

A woman shuts her summer cottage up in September and returns in June. No one has entered the cottage in the meantime. Explain what she is likely to find, in terms of the second law of thermodynamics.

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Consider a system with a certain energy content, from which we wish to extract as much work as possible. Should the system’s entropy be high or low? Is this orderly or disorderly? Structured or uniform? Explain briefly.

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Does a gas become more orderly when it liquefies? Does its entropy change? If so, does the entropy increase or decrease? Explain your answer.

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Explain how water’s entropy can decrease when it freezes without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Specifically, explain what happens to the entropy of its surroundings.

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Is a uniform-temperature gas more or less orderly than one with several different temperatures? Which is more structured? In which can heat transfer result in work done without heat transfer from another system?

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Give an example of a spontaneous process in which a system becomes less ordered and energy becomes less available to do work. What happens to the system’s entropy in this process?

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What is the change in entropy in an adiabatic process? Does this imply that adiabatic processes are reversible? Can a process be precisely adiabatic for a macroscopic system?

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Does the entropy of a star increase or decrease as it radiates? Does the entropy of the space into which it radiates (which has a temperature of about 3 K) increase or decrease? What does this do to the entropy of the universe?

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Explain why a building made of bricks has smaller entropy than the same bricks in a disorganized pile. Do this by considering the number of ways that each could be formed (the number of microstates in each macrostate).

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Problem exercises

(a) On a winter day, a certain house loses 5 . 00 × 10 8 J size 12{5 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " J"} {} of heat to the outside (about 500,000 Btu). What is the total change in entropy due to this heat transfer alone, assuming an average indoor temperature of 21.0º C size 12{"21" "." 0°C} {} and an average outdoor temperature of 5.00º C size 12{5 "." "00"°C} {} ? (b) This large change in entropy implies a large amount of energy has become unavailable to do work. Where do we find more energy when such energy is lost to us?

(a) 9.78 × 10 4 J/K size 12{9 "." "79" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " J/K"} {}

(b) In order to gain more energy, we must generate it from things within the house, like a heat pump, human bodies, and other appliances. As you know, we use a lot of energy to keep our houses warm in the winter because of the loss of heat to the outside.

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On a hot summer day, 4 . 00 × 10 6 J size 12{4 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {} of heat transfer into a parked car takes place, increasing its temperature from 35.0º C size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} to 45.0º C size 12{"45" "." 0°C} {} . What is the increase in entropy of the car due to this heat transfer alone?

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A hot rock ejected from a volcano’s lava fountain cools from 1100º C size 12{"1100"°C} {} to 40.0º C size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {} , and its entropy decreases by 950 J/K. How much heat transfer occurs from the rock?

8.01 × 10 5 J size 12{8 "." "01" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"} {}

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When 1 . 60 × 10 5 J size 12{1 "." "60"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"} {} of heat transfer occurs into a meat pie initially at 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} , its entropy increases by 480 J/K. What is its final temperature?

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The Sun radiates energy at the rate of 3 . 80 × 10 26 W size 12{3 "." "80"´"10" rSup { size 8{"26"} } " W"} {} from its 5500º C size 12{"5500"°C} {} surface into dark empty space (a negligible fraction radiates onto Earth and the other planets). The effective temperature of deep space is 270º C size 12{-"270"°C} {} . (a) What is the increase in entropy in one day due to this heat transfer? (b) How much work is made unavailable?

(a) 1 . 04 × 10 31 J/K size 12{1 "." "04" times "10" rSup { size 8{"31"} } " J/K"} {}

(b) 3 . 28 × 10 31 J size 12{3 "." "28" times "10" rSup { size 8{"31"} } " J"} {}

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(a) In reaching equilibrium, how much heat transfer occurs from 1.00 kg of water at 40.0º C size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {} when it is placed in contact with 1.00 kg of 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} water in reaching equilibrium? (b) What is the change in entropy due to this heat transfer? (c) How much work is made unavailable, taking the lowest temperature to be 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} ? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Entropy .

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What is the decrease in entropy of 25.0 g of water that condenses on a bathroom mirror at a temperature of 35.0º C size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} , assuming no change in temperature and given the latent heat of vaporization to be 2450 kJ/kg?

199 J/K

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Find the increase in entropy of 1.00 kg of liquid nitrogen that starts at its boiling temperature, boils, and warms to 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} at constant pressure.

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A large electrical power station generates 1000 MW of electricity with an efficiency of 35.0%. (a) Calculate the heat transfer to the power station, Q h size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {} , in one day. (b) How much heat transfer Q c size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} occurs to the environment in one day? (c) If the heat transfer in the cooling towers is from 35.0º C size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} water into the local air mass, which increases in temperature from 18.0º C size 12{"18" "." 0°C} {} to 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} , what is the total increase in entropy due to this heat transfer? (d) How much energy becomes unavailable to do work because of this increase in entropy, assuming an 18.0º C size 12{"18" "." 0°C} {} lowest temperature? (Part of Q c size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} could be utilized to operate heat engines or for simply heating the surroundings, but it rarely is.)

(a) 2 . 47 × 10 14 J size 12{2 "." "47" times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J"} {}

(b) 1 . 60 × 10 14 J size 12{1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J"} {}

(c) 2.85 × 10 10 J/K size 12{2 "." "86" times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } " J/K"} {}

(d) 8.29 × 10 12 J size 12{8 "." "31" times "10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } " J"} {}

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(a) How much heat transfer occurs from 20.0 kg of 90.0º C size 12{"90" "." 0°C} {} water placed in contact with 20.0 kg of 10.0º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} water, producing a final temperature of 50.0º C size 12{"50" "." 0°C} {} ? (b) How much work could a Carnot engine do with this heat transfer, assuming it operates between two reservoirs at constant temperatures of 90.0º C size 12{"90" "." 0°C} {} and 10.0º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} ? (c) What increase in entropy is produced by mixing 20.0 kg of 90.0º C size 12{"90" "." 0°C} {} water with 20.0 kg of 10.0º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} water? (d) Calculate the amount of work made unavailable by this mixing using a low temperature of 10.0º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} , and compare it with the work done by the Carnot engine. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Entropy . (e) Discuss how everyday processes make increasingly more energy unavailable to do work, as implied by this problem.

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Questions & Answers

what is a half life
Mama Reply
the time taken for a radioactive element to decay by half of its original mass
ken
what is radioactive element
mohammed
Half of the total time required by a radioactive nuclear atom to totally disintegrate
Justice
radioactive elements are those with unstable nuclei(ie have protons more than neutrons, or neutrons more than protons
Justice
in other words, the radioactive atom or elements have unequal number of protons to neutrons.
Justice
state the laws of refraction
Fabian
state laws of reflection
Fabian
when was the name taken from
Biola Reply
retardation of a car
Biola
when was the name retardation taken
Biola
did you mean a motion with velocity decreases uniformly by the time? then, the vector acceleration is opposite direction with vector velocity
Sphere
Atomic transmutation
Basirat Reply
An atom is the smallest indivisible particular of an element
mosco Reply
what is an atomic
Awene Reply
reference on periodic table
Titus Reply
what Is resonance?
Mozam Reply
phenomena of increasing amplitude from normal position of a substance due to some external source.
akif
What is a black body
Amey Reply
Black body is the ideal body can absorb and emit all radiation
Ahmed
the emissivity of black body is 1. it is a perfect absorber and emitter of heat.
Busayo
Why is null measurement accurate than standard voltmeter
Neemat Reply
that is photoelectric effect ?
Sabir Reply
It is the emission of electrons when light hits a material
Anita
Yeah
yusuf
is not just a material
Neemat
it is the surface of a metal
Neemat
what is the formula for time of flight ,maxjmum height and range
agangan Reply
what is an atom
Awene
how does a lightning rod protect a building from damage due to lightning ?
Faith Reply
due to its surface lustre but due to some factors it can corrode but not easily as it lightning surface
babels
pls what is mirage
babels
light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects; it's an natural & optical phenomenon......
Deepika
what is the dimensional formula for torque
Otto Reply
L2MT-2
Jolly
same units of energy
Baber
what is same units of energy?
Baber
Nm
Sphere
Ws
Sphere
CV
Sphere
M L2 T -2
Dokku
it is like checking the dimension of force. which is ML2T-2
Busayo
ML2T-2
Joshua
M L2 T-2
Samuel
what is the significance of moment of inertia?
study
an object of mass 200g moves along a circular path of radius 0.5cm with a speed of 2m/s. calculate the angular velocity ii period iii frequency of the object
Faith Reply
w = 2/(0.005) period = PIE(0.005) f = 1/(PIE(0.005)) assuming uniform motion idk..
Georgie
w=2/(0.005)×100
isaac
supposed the speed on the path is constant angular velocity w (rad/s) = v (m/s) : R (m) period T (s) = 2*Pi * R : v frequency f ( Hz) = 1: T
Sphere
in the pole vaulter problem, how do they established that the mass is 5.00kg? where did that number come from?
-- Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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