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Section summary

  • Entropy is the loss of energy available to do work.
  • Another form of the second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of a system either increases or remains constant; it never decreases.
  • Entropy is zero in a reversible process; it increases in an irreversible process.
  • The ultimate fate of the universe is likely to be thermodynamic equilibrium, where the universal temperature is constant and no energy is available to do work.
  • Entropy is also associated with the tendency toward disorder in a closed system.

Conceptual questions

A woman shuts her summer cottage up in September and returns in June. No one has entered the cottage in the meantime. Explain what she is likely to find, in terms of the second law of thermodynamics.

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Consider a system with a certain energy content, from which we wish to extract as much work as possible. Should the system’s entropy be high or low? Is this orderly or disorderly? Structured or uniform? Explain briefly.

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Does a gas become more orderly when it liquefies? Does its entropy change? If so, does the entropy increase or decrease? Explain your answer.

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Explain how water’s entropy can decrease when it freezes without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Specifically, explain what happens to the entropy of its surroundings.

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Is a uniform-temperature gas more or less orderly than one with several different temperatures? Which is more structured? In which can heat transfer result in work done without heat transfer from another system?

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Give an example of a spontaneous process in which a system becomes less ordered and energy becomes less available to do work. What happens to the system’s entropy in this process?

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What is the change in entropy in an adiabatic process? Does this imply that adiabatic processes are reversible? Can a process be precisely adiabatic for a macroscopic system?

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Does the entropy of a star increase or decrease as it radiates? Does the entropy of the space into which it radiates (which has a temperature of about 3 K) increase or decrease? What does this do to the entropy of the universe?

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Explain why a building made of bricks has smaller entropy than the same bricks in a disorganized pile. Do this by considering the number of ways that each could be formed (the number of microstates in each macrostate).

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Problem exercises

(a) On a winter day, a certain house loses 5 . 00 × 10 8 J size 12{5 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " J"} {} of heat to the outside (about 500,000 Btu). What is the total change in entropy due to this heat transfer alone, assuming an average indoor temperature of 21.0º C size 12{"21" "." 0°C} {} and an average outdoor temperature of 5.00º C size 12{5 "." "00"°C} {} ? (b) This large change in entropy implies a large amount of energy has become unavailable to do work. Where do we find more energy when such energy is lost to us?

(a) 9.78 × 10 4 J/K size 12{9 "." "79" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " J/K"} {}

(b) In order to gain more energy, we must generate it from things within the house, like a heat pump, human bodies, and other appliances. As you know, we use a lot of energy to keep our houses warm in the winter because of the loss of heat to the outside.

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On a hot summer day, 4 . 00 × 10 6 J size 12{4 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {} of heat transfer into a parked car takes place, increasing its temperature from 35.0º C size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} to 45.0º C size 12{"45" "." 0°C} {} . What is the increase in entropy of the car due to this heat transfer alone?

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A hot rock ejected from a volcano’s lava fountain cools from 1100º C size 12{"1100"°C} {} to 40.0º C size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {} , and its entropy decreases by 950 J/K. How much heat transfer occurs from the rock?

8.01 × 10 5 J size 12{8 "." "01" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"} {}

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When 1 . 60 × 10 5 J size 12{1 "." "60"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"} {} of heat transfer occurs into a meat pie initially at 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} , its entropy increases by 480 J/K. What is its final temperature?

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The Sun radiates energy at the rate of 3 . 80 × 10 26 W size 12{3 "." "80"´"10" rSup { size 8{"26"} } " W"} {} from its 5500º C size 12{"5500"°C} {} surface into dark empty space (a negligible fraction radiates onto Earth and the other planets). The effective temperature of deep space is 270º C size 12{-"270"°C} {} . (a) What is the increase in entropy in one day due to this heat transfer? (b) How much work is made unavailable?

(a) 1 . 04 × 10 31 J/K size 12{1 "." "04" times "10" rSup { size 8{"31"} } " J/K"} {}

(b) 3 . 28 × 10 31 J size 12{3 "." "28" times "10" rSup { size 8{"31"} } " J"} {}

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(a) In reaching equilibrium, how much heat transfer occurs from 1.00 kg of water at 40.0º C size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {} when it is placed in contact with 1.00 kg of 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} water in reaching equilibrium? (b) What is the change in entropy due to this heat transfer? (c) How much work is made unavailable, taking the lowest temperature to be 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} ? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Entropy .

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What is the decrease in entropy of 25.0 g of water that condenses on a bathroom mirror at a temperature of 35.0º C size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} , assuming no change in temperature and given the latent heat of vaporization to be 2450 kJ/kg?

199 J/K

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Find the increase in entropy of 1.00 kg of liquid nitrogen that starts at its boiling temperature, boils, and warms to 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} at constant pressure.

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A large electrical power station generates 1000 MW of electricity with an efficiency of 35.0%. (a) Calculate the heat transfer to the power station, Q h size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {} , in one day. (b) How much heat transfer Q c size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} occurs to the environment in one day? (c) If the heat transfer in the cooling towers is from 35.0º C size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} water into the local air mass, which increases in temperature from 18.0º C size 12{"18" "." 0°C} {} to 20.0º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} , what is the total increase in entropy due to this heat transfer? (d) How much energy becomes unavailable to do work because of this increase in entropy, assuming an 18.0º C size 12{"18" "." 0°C} {} lowest temperature? (Part of Q c size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} could be utilized to operate heat engines or for simply heating the surroundings, but it rarely is.)

(a) 2 . 47 × 10 14 J size 12{2 "." "47" times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J"} {}

(b) 1 . 60 × 10 14 J size 12{1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " J"} {}

(c) 2.85 × 10 10 J/K size 12{2 "." "86" times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } " J/K"} {}

(d) 8.29 × 10 12 J size 12{8 "." "31" times "10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } " J"} {}

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(a) How much heat transfer occurs from 20.0 kg of 90.0º C size 12{"90" "." 0°C} {} water placed in contact with 20.0 kg of 10.0º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} water, producing a final temperature of 50.0º C size 12{"50" "." 0°C} {} ? (b) How much work could a Carnot engine do with this heat transfer, assuming it operates between two reservoirs at constant temperatures of 90.0º C size 12{"90" "." 0°C} {} and 10.0º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} ? (c) What increase in entropy is produced by mixing 20.0 kg of 90.0º C size 12{"90" "." 0°C} {} water with 20.0 kg of 10.0º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} water? (d) Calculate the amount of work made unavailable by this mixing using a low temperature of 10.0º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} , and compare it with the work done by the Carnot engine. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Entropy . (e) Discuss how everyday processes make increasingly more energy unavailable to do work, as implied by this problem.

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Questions & Answers

lExplain what happens to the energy carried by light that it is dimmed by passing it through two crossed polarizing filters.
Christoper Reply
What is specific heat capacity?
hamidat Reply
Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one (Kg) of a substance through one Kelvin
Paluutar
formula for measuring Joules
Rowshan Reply
I don't understand, do you mean the S.I unit of work and energy?
hamidat
what are the effects of electric current
ADAMS Reply
What limits the Magnification of an optical instrument?
Naeem Reply
Lithography is 2 micron
Venkateshwarlu
what is expression for energy possessed by water ripple
Prabesh Reply
what is hydrolic press
Mark Reply
An hydraulic press is a type of machine that is operated by different pressure of water on pistons.
hamidat
what is dimensional unite of mah
Patrock Reply
i want jamb related question on this asap🙏
sharon Reply
What is Boyles law
Pascal Reply
it can simple defined as constant temperature
Muhammad
Boyles law states that the volume of a fixed amount of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure acting on in provided that the temperature is constant.that is V=k(1/p) or V=k/p
FADILAT
what is motion
Mua Reply
getting notifications for a dictionary word, smh
Anderson
what is escape velocity
Shuaibu Reply
the minimum thrust that an object must have in oder yo escape the gravitational pull
Joshua
what is a dimer
Mua
what is a atom
ADAMS
how to calculate tension
Deena Reply
what are the laws of motion
Mua
what is force
Ugwu Reply
Force is any quantity or a change that produces motion on an object body.
albert
A force is a push or a pull that has the tendency of changing a body's uniform state of rest or uniform state of motion in a straight line.
nicholas
plsoo give me the gravitational motion formulas
Okoye
f=Gm/d²
FADILAT
What is the meaning of emf
Chinedu Reply
electro magnetic force
shafiu
Electromotive force (emf) is a measurement of the energy that causes current to flow through a circuit.
Darssini
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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