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Besides potential health risks, pest infestation will inevitably lead to significant waste and, therefore, commercial loss. The loss caused by pest infestation of raw materials or the finished product can be large.

This section presents information about

  • the hazards posed by pests
  • types of pests
  • characteristics of pests.

Hazards posed by pests

Food products are at a high risk of contamination if control measures are not in place. Pests are carriers of food poisoning microorganisms and viruses that pose major hazards to consumer health.

In addition to the contamination by microorganisms and viruses, pests can also contaminate food with

  • hair
  • fur
  • droppings/urine
  • eggs
  • dead bodies.

Certain pests, rodents in particular, can also cause significant damage to a factory by, for example, chewing through electrical wires and causing fires.

Types of pests

There are many different types of pests that can pose a risk to human health or the commercial viability of your company. These include

  • rats
  • mice
  • insects – cockroaches, flies, ants
  • stored product pests – larder beetles, weevils, flour moths
  • reptiles – lizards
  • birds
  • animals attracted by pests- notably, cats and dogs.

Habitats of pests

Pests require certain conditions to survive and reproduce:

  • security
  • shelter
  • food
  • water.

As a food safety manager, you must understand what conditions allow pests to survive and reproduce. If you aren’t fully aware of what these circumstances are, you business will suffer contamination and loss that may make the business no longer sustainable.


Once pests have entered your factory, it is difficult to control and totally eliminate them, particularly if there is an infestation. You must prevent their invading your factory or facility!

Preventing any and all ingression of pests will be commercially more cost-effective than continually eliminating pest infestation.

The control of prevention of ingression of pests requires

  • proofing the premises
  • monitoring for signs of infestation
  • practicing good hygiene.

Conditions to minimise the risk of pest ingression

Effective proofing of your factory premises is the preferred method for control of pests.

Doors and windows pose the highest risk of ingression; thus a door and window closure policy should be introduced. Other methods may need to be considered: fine mesh screens for windows and doors, self-closing mechanisms on doors, and plastic curtains on internal and external door openings.

Rodents can enter a factory through the smallest of openings, so any gap under doors should be covered with a metal plate. To prevent flying insects, reptiles, or birds, any

holes or openings in the fabrication of the factory must be filled with mortar or covered with metal/plastic sheets or mesh.

Awareness of infestation

As the food safety manager, you must make sure all staff members are aware of signs of pest infestation and possible entry points. They should also be aware of the importance of reporting the presence of any possible infestation right away. Signs to look for are

  • live animals
  • dead animals
  • droppings
  • damaged packaging
  • smell
  • smears/discolouration of walls
  • larvae/pupae
  • eggs
  • webbing
  • piles of debris
  • holes in fabrication.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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