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Besides potential health risks, pest infestation will inevitably lead to significant waste and, therefore, commercial loss. The loss caused by pest infestation of raw materials or the finished product can be large.

This section presents information about

  • the hazards posed by pests
  • types of pests
  • characteristics of pests.

Hazards posed by pests

Food products are at a high risk of contamination if control measures are not in place. Pests are carriers of food poisoning microorganisms and viruses that pose major hazards to consumer health.

In addition to the contamination by microorganisms and viruses, pests can also contaminate food with

  • hair
  • fur
  • droppings/urine
  • eggs
  • dead bodies.

Certain pests, rodents in particular, can also cause significant damage to a factory by, for example, chewing through electrical wires and causing fires.

Types of pests

There are many different types of pests that can pose a risk to human health or the commercial viability of your company. These include

  • rats
  • mice
  • insects – cockroaches, flies, ants
  • stored product pests – larder beetles, weevils, flour moths
  • reptiles – lizards
  • birds
  • animals attracted by pests- notably, cats and dogs.

Habitats of pests

Pests require certain conditions to survive and reproduce:

  • security
  • shelter
  • food
  • water.

As a food safety manager, you must understand what conditions allow pests to survive and reproduce. If you aren’t fully aware of what these circumstances are, you business will suffer contamination and loss that may make the business no longer sustainable.

Prevention

Once pests have entered your factory, it is difficult to control and totally eliminate them, particularly if there is an infestation. You must prevent their invading your factory or facility!

Preventing any and all ingression of pests will be commercially more cost-effective than continually eliminating pest infestation.

The control of prevention of ingression of pests requires

  • proofing the premises
  • monitoring for signs of infestation
  • practicing good hygiene.

Conditions to minimise the risk of pest ingression

Effective proofing of your factory premises is the preferred method for control of pests.

Doors and windows pose the highest risk of ingression; thus a door and window closure policy should be introduced. Other methods may need to be considered: fine mesh screens for windows and doors, self-closing mechanisms on doors, and plastic curtains on internal and external door openings.

Rodents can enter a factory through the smallest of openings, so any gap under doors should be covered with a metal plate. To prevent flying insects, reptiles, or birds, any

holes or openings in the fabrication of the factory must be filled with mortar or covered with metal/plastic sheets or mesh.

Awareness of infestation

As the food safety manager, you must make sure all staff members are aware of signs of pest infestation and possible entry points. They should also be aware of the importance of reporting the presence of any possible infestation right away. Signs to look for are

  • live animals
  • dead animals
  • droppings
  • damaged packaging
  • smell
  • smears/discolouration of walls
  • larvae/pupae
  • eggs
  • webbing
  • piles of debris
  • holes in fabrication.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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