# 22.3 The process of breathing

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Describe the mechanisms that drive breathing
• Discuss how pressure, volume, and resistance are related
• List the steps involved in pulmonary ventilation
• Discuss the physical factors related to breathing
• Discuss the meaning of respiratory volume and capacities
• Define respiratory rate
• Outline the mechanisms behind the control of breathing
• Describe the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata
• Describe the respiratory centers of the pons
• Discuss factors that can influence the respiratory rate

Pulmonary ventilation is the act of breathing, which can be described as the movement of air into and out of the lungs. The major mechanisms that drive pulmonary ventilation are atmospheric pressure ( P atm ); the air pressure within the alveoli, called alveolar pressure ( P alv ); and the pressure within the pleural cavity, called intrapleural pressure ( P ip ).

## Mechanisms of breathing

The alveolar and intrapleural pressures are dependent on certain physical features of the lung. However, the ability to breathe—to have air enter the lungs during inspiration and air leave the lungs during expiration—is dependent on the air pressure of the atmosphere and the air pressure within the lungs.

## Pressure relationships

Inspiration (or inhalation) and expiration (or exhalation) are dependent on the differences in pressure between the atmosphere and the lungs. In a gas, pressure is a force created by the movement of gas molecules that are confined. For example, a certain number of gas molecules in a two-liter container has more room than the same number of gas molecules in a one-liter container ( [link] ). In this case, the force exerted by the movement of the gas molecules against the walls of the two-liter container is lower than the force exerted by the gas molecules in the one-liter container. Therefore, the pressure is lower in the two-liter container and higher in the one-liter container. At a constant temperature, changing the volume occupied by the gas changes the pressure, as does changing the number of gas molecules. Boyle’s law    describes the relationship between volume and pressure in a gas at a constant temperature. Boyle discovered that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume: If volume increases, pressure decreases. Likewise, if volume decreases, pressure increases. Pressure and volume are inversely related ( P = k/ V ). Therefore, the pressure in the one-liter container (one-half the volume of the two-liter container) would be twice the pressure in the two-liter container. Boyle’s law is expressed by the following formula:

${P}_{1}{V}_{1}={P}_{2}{V}_{2}$

In this formula, P 1 represents the initial pressure and V 1 represents the initial volume, whereas the final pressure and volume are represented by P 2 and V 2, respectively. If the two- and one-liter containers were connected by a tube and the volume of one of the containers were changed, then the gases would move from higher pressure (lower volume) to lower pressure (higher volume).

what is respiratory system
What is the differences between anabolism and catabolism?
what are steroid hormones
Mwesige
it doesn't have nothing to do with are sex hormones
isaiah
it's something with food we eat,the air we breathe into the energy we need to function
isaiah
There are two parts to metabolism: Catabolism and Anabolism. An example of Anabolism is steroids. They build muscle. Where as Catabolism is the dagratative process or the breakdown process.
Eric
Yes, in a way. Insulin is catabolic when it comes to glucose. Where as glucacon is anabolic when it comes to sugar. The two words are like the prepositions up and down. They describe a position. In which can be used to describe anything. However, they are biologic terms to describe metabolism.
Eric
The food analogy has merrit. The conversation if food and oxygen into energy. Is a part of our metabolism called cellular respiration. In which is a METABOLIC PROCESS. Respiration has many steps and products. So, it is both anabolic and catabolic.
Eric
FOR ALL OF MY SCIENTIST, ALWAYS BREAK UP WORDS YOU DO NOT KNOW. BREAK THEM UP INTO THEIR BASE, PREFIX AND SUFIX. LET'S USE HYDROLYSIS. HYDRO MEANS WATER AND LYSIS MEANS TO BREAK DOWN. SO A HYDROLYTIC REACTION IS ONE WHERE WATER IS BROKEN DOWN.
Eric
I hope my explanation helped.
Eric
Yes sr
JERRY
glucagon isn't anabolic when it comes to sugar, cos glucagon acts on the stored glycogen in the liver, which is being broken down back to glucose and secreted or circulated in the blood stream.
Ikenze
(1) anabolism is practically the build up of chemicals or smaller molecules into larger molecules. while catabolism is the breakdown or the "lysis" of larger molecular cells or chemicals into smaller molecules. (2) Anabolism is a type of chemical reaction which is endothermic,while catabolism is...
Ikenze
...a chemical reaction which is exothermic.
Ikenze
anabolism is also endergonic meaning they require a lot of energy to progress, that is they aren't spontaneous, while catabolism is an exergonic reaction meaning they give out a lot of energy to help In the anabolic process, that is they are spontaneous.
Ikenze
and again, insulin is not catabolic when it comes to glucose it's is anabolic because it builds up glucose as glycogen(polysaccharide) and stores it in the liver and muscles.
Ikenze
whats the difference between regional anatomy and systematic anatomy?
Regional anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of a particular region of the body, e.g the heart. systematic anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of a particular body system. e.g The reproductive system.
Ikenze
Cells are the building blocks of life. A city is a living organism, hypotheticly. You have Ave, Streets, Blvd, Rd, Pkwy and Interstates. These would be transportation systems. The human body is the same way. You can study the whole body. Or you can study the respiratory system, nervous system, etc.
Eric
Some of these systems overlap, of course. As a doctor, it is important to understand them individually. But it is most important to understand them as a whole.
Eric
how many litres of blood does a human body have
hi
Sweetlin
hliii
Mohd
there are around 10.5p.(5literes) adult body
Shubu
what is homeostasis
it is self regulating ability of the body to adjust to the surroundings
Angela
it is like maintaining an equilibrium type of environment between the inside and outside of the body, so that our body can adjust to the external environmental changes
Angela
this is the negative feedback loop of the body,.... that naturally helps to keep the body in a stable or constant internal environment.
Matthew
this is the activities in the body that keeps the internal environment of the body in equilibrium or to keep it constant.
Ikenze
You also have negative feed back loops. These are rare in the human body.
Eric
list four long bones
the four long bones are: tibia, fibula, femur, and humerus.
Isaac
from Zambia
Mary
Om
humerus, femur, tibia and fibula
Sheryl
Humerus,redius,ulnar,in hand. Femur,tibia,fibula in leg. it is long bone.
Sneha
there is contradiction between radius ulna & tibia fibula because of the variation in the upper and lower limb of the according to growth and development of human body so humerus & femur are longer bones ( ex you can see Michael phaleps upper limb is longer than the lower limb)
Prashant
if anyone having dout so he she can please explain it to me
Prashant
which one want explain something
Dr
sir post which I have send look at it & tell is it correct or not
Prashant
about four long bones is the topic
Prashant
femur, humerus, tibia and fibula
Ikenze
Radius and ulnar are in the lower arm. However the phalanges, which are the bones in the fingers, are a part of the hand. The bones in the hand would be refered to as the metacarpels.
Eric
One way to remember the shorter bones of the lower arm is. The radial and ulnar nerves run in the arm. These nerves run adjacent to the bones with the same name.
Eric
how are you doing
hi everyone.
AR
Im new here, I came from the philippines. I study nursing. Im a first year student.
AR
really
Isaac
so what help do you want
Isaac
yeah I came from the philippines..and I have struggle about this subject the anatomy and physiology because I dont any books that I barrowed with. I cant afford buy books.
AR
hii
Meher
I'm from India
Jamy
I struggle with this subject
Jamy
can I ask here a question I hope you can help me because I dont have any references/books that I should see or read it.
AR
AR
Meher
you are from india nice to talk to you jamy.
AR
Alright Always drop your concerns here and they will be addressed. Thanks sister.
Isaac
nice meeting with you
Jamy
I am also from India
shiv
thank you Isaac.
AR
yes Meher?
AR
you are all india
AR
By the way I have question
AR
describe a person in anatomical position?
AR
i come from Ghana
Isaac
are you all nursing students?
AR
no I'm pharmacy student
Jamy
oh nice.
AR
yes
shiv
jamy me too
Meher
yes
shiv
yes
shiv
my name is sweety
Jamy
you have any chat group that we can talk there.
AR
Anatomical position is the description of any region or part of the body in a specific stance. In the anatomical position, the body is upright, directly facing the observer, feet flat and directed forward. The upper limbs are at the body's sides with the palms facing forward. The standard anatomic
Isaac
yes
shiv
jamy is my nick name
Jamy
I am a nursing student
Isaac
thank you Isaac
AR
Final year, level 400
Isaac
ohh what year are you now?
AR
Nice
AR
Isaac
do you have any chat group here
AR
describe the six levels of organization of the body and describe the major characteristics of each level?
AR
ahh its okay jammy
AR
jammy i am from kashmir nd u
Meher
It is convenient to consider the structures of the body in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity, such as (from smallest to largest): chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and an organism.
Isaac
hi
Yaminah
am from somalia
Yaminah
5th year in medical student nice to meet ya all
Yaminah
thxs yaminah
Meher
y not.. jamy for what purpose...?
Meher
inbox me i will guide u ...?
Meher
i also dont know...?
Meher
open this app - click 'start learning' - click 'preface' - select the chat that you wanna join into I guess that is it !
Angela
Hello am from Sierra Leone
junisa
I am from Kerala
Angela
I am from india
Om
tell the easyst way to learn anatomy
try to draw 👌
Rahil
what
shiv
learn subject with drawing anatomy diagrams some with flow chart i dont say it is easiest way bt yes u can rember for longer period
Shakerah
ooh
shiv
Can u say me parturation
Sweetlin
parturition is one of the 7 stages of human reproduction. parturition is actually that last or the 7th stage, that is giving birth to the baby or the delivery of the baby.
Angela
Mr. khaliff.. never ever use a short cut or easiest way to Acquire knowledge.. the knowledge what we got from an easiest way , cuz it will be become temporary, not permanent.. especially in the anatomy.. cuz it's a complex subject.. you can shortlist as per your syllabus, not yourself..
Sanjith
I think shakeerah's ideology of learning anatomy is one of a best method to easy learning.. and try to share with your friends or here, what you've acknowledged each day.. thankyu
Sanjith
I am agree with that point
shiv
if u get time aftr learning this 2_3 ppl join , make group make questions if urself even if its silly make it as flash card sometimes u fail , its okay. dont be less heart. u vl do it anyway if u concentrate. bt choosing ppl or the selection of ppl during studying it really matters.
Shakerah
if u get time aftr learning this 2_3 ppl join , make group make questions if urself even if its silly make it as flash card sometimes u fail , its okay. u vl do it anyway if u concentrate. bt choosing ppl or the selection of ppl during studying it really matters.
Shakerah
😊
Sanjith
what Tk
shiv
good night all... stay safe.. bye
Sanjith
Understand the basic function of a cell. Understand the different types of cells. You are not going to have a nerve cell doing gas exchange in the alveolar. You are not going to have a nerve cell protecting the body, in the integamentary system. Understanding this dictates location & function.
Eric
be. good xx xx xx xx friend cg in
Rael
hello im new here, im a nursing student
ooh
shiv
welcome
shiv
wlcm
Rahil
dub
Ndowmi
maleria
Ndowmi
Anopheles
shiv
welcome shuga
Om
please am new here. Am a nurse awaiting to be posted .
Ntiamoah
hi I'm new here too
faleke
FAKE DrLUPO thank you
faleke
hello guys
Chuks
hello guys 🤗
Sneha
hello
Chuks
whose in Nigeria
Chuks
🙋🙋
faleke
what is inner breeding
Vijay
Vijay
wait
shiv
inbreeding is mating or breeding with organism that are genetically related
shiv
s
Pankaj
who this SRY
Pankaj
inner breeding is breeding among the same species of organisms
Anna
*inbreeding
Anna
yes same speciesor same genetic organism
shiv
description of the menstruation cycle
explain the menstruation cycle
Namyalo
explain the menstrual cycle
Ugo
menstrual cycle is came due to FSH and LH
shiv
fsh
Ndowmi
This is the periodic release of waste(blood) from the reproductive organ of the females (human) for a period of some days, after which or during then, ovulation takes place, which is the release of eggs from the ovaries for fertilization by the spermatozoa.
Ikenze
Description of menestraul cycle
i want to improve my study i like this app i interest physiology and anatomy
I also like this app am really interested in learning anatomy and physiology.
Johny
I have this book with my anatomy class it's awesome! also if look at crashcourse anatomy on you tube!
AMY
what the name
isaiah
umesh. rede
Rede
what is heart and long type answer
its a organ in the body
ay
describe about hear chambers.. valves.. arteries.. veins.. circulation.. inferior/superior venacava, aorta., tricuspid valve, mitral valve. pulmonary artery/vein, how oxigenation occur,systolic presure diastolic pressure.. stroke volume,cardiac output, ets.. heart located in which place, describe it
Sanjith
if you describe what I cited up, thogh you can write a long type answer about heart
Sanjith
hi
Riyaz
autonomic functions took over
What did they take over?
Eric