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A general explanation of how functions are used to modularize a program.

Prerequisite material

Critical to this module is the review of several Connexions modules:

  1. m_18861 – Titled: Modularization and C++ Program Layout
  2. m_19136 – Titled: Pseudocode Examples for Functions
  3. m_18682 – Titled: Hierarchy or Structure Chart

You should review these materials before proceeding. If you are viewing this module on-line, links to these items are in the "Links" box to your right.

Concept of modularization

The concept is everywhere present in the real world about us. Simply put it is to take a large complicated problem and to divide it into smaller manageable pieces . The hierarchy chart of any large organization (government unit, company, university, hospital, etc.) will show levels of people with job titles that indicate a different area of responsibility. Each person is a small piece of the overall workings of the organization. Each person can concentrate on their unique talent or task to make sure it works properly. Collectively they accomplish the goals of the organization.  

Additionally, the concept has been around for a long time. A village of 300 years ago had farmers, tailors, butchers, blacksmiths, etc. Manufacturing is a prime example of not just work being modularized but the product itself is viewed in terms of modules or systems (Example of a automobile: engine, steering, brakes, etc.).

The world of computers, both hardware (equipment) and software (computer programs), also uses this modular concept. Thus, the concept migrates to a single computer program; allowing us to modularize the program into manageable tasks called functions.

Program control functions

Program Control functions normally do not communicate information to each other but use a common area for variable storage. The rules for how data is communicated in and out of a function vary greatly by programming language, but the concept is the same. The data items passed (or communicated) are called parameters. Thus the wording: parameter passing . However, with program control functions we use the data communication option of no communication in – with no communication out . Our data variables and constants are placed in a common area available to all functions (called global scope).

The identifier names for program control functions usually imply a task to be accomplished, such as get-data, process-data or show-results. As you learn to write more complicated programs the number of lines of code will increase. Prudence dictates that it would be beneficial to divide the program into functions that perform unique tasks. The larger the program the more need for modularization or creating of program control functions.

Depending on the programming language, there is a formal way to:

  1. define a function (it’s definition or the code it will execute))
  2. call a function
  3. declare a function (a prototype is a declaration to a complier)

One of the easier ways to understand program control function is to view an example. Even if you don’t know the C++ programming language, you can study the materials to help understand the modularization process.

Demonstration program in c++

Creating a folder or sub-folder for source code files

Depending on your compiler/IDE, you should decide where to download and store source code files for processing. Prudence dictates that you create these folders as needed prior to downloading source code files. A suggested sub-folder for the Bloodshed Dev-C++ 5 compiler/IDE might be named:

  • Demo_Programs

If you have not done so, please create the folder(s) and/or sub-folder(s) as appropriate.

Download the demo program

Download and store the following file(s) to your storage device in the appropriate folder(s). You may need to right click on some of the links and select "Save Target As" in order to download some of the files. Following the methods of your compiler/IDE, compile and run the program(s). Study the source code file(s) in conjunction with other learning materials.

Download from Connexions: Demo_Program_Control_Functions_before_Compiler_Test.cpp

Download from Connexions: Demo_Program_Control_Functions_Pseudocode.txt

Download from Connexions: Demo_Program_Control_Functions_Hierarchy_Chart.jpg

Download from Connexions: Demo_Program_Control_Functions.cpp

Study the materials collectively to understand modularization

The four items represent a progression from no modularization to modularization:

  1. Program code before it is modularized
  2. Modularized pseudocode and a hierarchy chart for the program
  3. Program code that has been modularized

The simplicity of the program should not be considered during this review. It is obvious that the program does not need modularization. The example is to show or demonstrate how to modularize a program for program control.

Definitions

common area
An area of the program where variables and constants are defined so that they are available to all functions.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals - a modular structured approach using c++. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10621/1.22
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