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In essence, this approach was very appealing in terms of performance, development time, and cost (essentially free). Although faster and more efficient implementations are possible (e.g. C/C++ and Fortran with open-MPI , the aforementioned implementation was sufficient for our purposes).

The code utilized was initially developed for sequential execution (in SAS ) and then converted to R with similar performance. It was subsequently converted from sequential to parallel to exploit the benefits of a parallel R -implementation. The standard steps for this conversion process are pretty standard, essentially:

  1. We identify the loops which carry independent computations. we have two main loops. Firstly, simulating J portfolios can be regarded as J independent operations, which we can execute concurrently. Secondly, running the algorithm over a number of N years, can be regarded as N independent computational efforts.
  2. Vectorize loops ( Workhorse Functions).
  3. Gather results ( Combine/Gather Functions).
  4. Distribute Execution (Call functions with snow ).

Several 64 processor jobs were submitted to Rice's Cray XD1 Research Cluster (ADA) - occupying 16 nodes, each with a total of 4 processors. The jobs would take less than 20 hours to complete, for about 64 simulated tracks of 40 years each.

Results

Preliminary results

Several simulations were run with observed, above average performance (number of portfolios inspected per simulation was in the range of J = 25 , 000 to J = 50 , 000 ). Figure 1 shows a simulation of J = 50 , 000 portfolios per year over a period of 43 years. Several interesting features can be noted through this figure. We can appreciate that any investor that made up a portfolio with an initial investment of $100,000 in 1970 and selected the same stocks chosen by our algorithm would have allowed his or her portfolio to compound to a total of $3.7M (by the end of 2008), which performed better than both an equal-investment strategy in the S&P 500 Index (about $2.7M) or a market-cap weighted investment strategy in the S&P 500 Index (slightly below $1M). Of course, we can imagine that the computational power that was used was not available in the early seventies, but moving forward it will be and to an extent this is what matters. Also it is clearly seen that the Coordinated Max-Median Rule is inherently a more volatile rule (as compared to the S&P 500). Next, Figure 2 describes 1 of 3 pilot runs that were evaluated with various measures suggesting the superiority of the max-median (as opposed to, say for instance the mean, as well as the benefit of using the “max” rather than the “min”). This seems plausible, at least heuristically, as the median is most robust (the mean is least robust), and in some sense the previous years “best” performing companies are more likely to perform better next year than the previous years “worst” performing companies (in terms of returns).

Coordinated Max-Median Rule (Single Run) 50,000 Portfolios Evaluated per Year
Coordinated Max-Median Rule (Single Run) 25,000 Portfolios Evaluated per Year with additional evaluations

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The art of the pfug. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10523/1.34
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