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Some Important Definitions:

Chiral: An object that is not superimposable on its mirror image.

Isomers: Different molecules with the same molecular formula.

Constitutional isomers: Isomers that differ in the connectivities of atoms.

Stereoisomers: Isomers that are not constitutional isomers. These differ in the spatial arrangement of atoms.

Enantiomers: Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images.

Diastereomers: Stereoisomers that are not enantiomers. (Compounds with more than one stereocenter)

Fig 2.1: Summary of isomerism

Meso Compounds: A compound that contains exactly one stereocenter is always chiral. However, compounds that contain more than one stereocenter are not necessarily chiral. This occurs when multiple stereocenters create an internal plane of symmetry. For example, consider 2,3-dichlorobutane. There are four possible stereochemical permutations since there are two stereocenters:

Figure 4: Stereoisomers of 2,3-dichlorobutane

Figure 4.2: Four possible stereoisomers of 2-bromo-3-chlorobutane

Prelab: extraction of carvone

(Total 10 Points)

On my honor, in preparing this report, I know that I am free to use references and consult with others. However, I cannot copy from other students’work or misrepresent my own data.

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Print Name: _________________________________________

1. Assign the configurations of the two stereocenters in the compound below. (2 points)

2. Assign R or S configuration to the following molecules. (3 points)

3. Between the stress of university and your diet consisting entirely of pizza, potato chips, and chocolate bars, you have developed an ulcer. In order to numb the burning in your stomach, you take Pepcid. The active ingredient in Pepcid, famotidine, has the structure shown below. For the atoms indicated, identify the hybridization (5 points)

Grading

  • Completion of Pre-Lab Questions.
  • Write-up in your Lab Notebook).
  • Completion of Report Questions.
  • TA Points.

Materials required

Equipment Chemicals
30 mL beaker Caraway seeds
Hirsch funnel Ether
Filter paper Spearmint leaves
TLC plates 10% ethyl acetate in hexane
Blotter p-anisaldehyde stain
Tubes

Safety

Wear gloves all the time. Keep safety glasses on all the time to avoid unwanted accidents. Dispose organic substances in the proper container.

Experimental procedure

1) Measure 2 g of crushed caraway seeds into a 30 mL beaker and add 10 mL of ether. Ether is chosen as a solvent because the carvone is soluble in ether. Cover with aluminum foil to prevent evaporation and allow the mixture to stand for 15-30 minutes.

2) Measure 2 g of spearmint leaves into a 50 mL beaker and add 10 mL of ether. Again, cover with aluminum foil and allow the mixture to stand for 15-30 minutes. The different containers have no effect on the extraction; they simply allow you to do two extractions simultaneously without duplicating your glassware.

3) Once the seeds have soaked for the appropriate time, use a Hirsch funnel to filter the caraway seed solution (Always clamp a filter flask.). This is done by placing a piece of filter paper in the funnel, assembling the Hirsch funnel as shown in the diagram below, and starting the suction such that a vacuum builds up in the filter flask. Pre-wet the filter paper with ether, then pipette the liquid from the extraction into the funnel and collect the liquid in the receiving flask. When you have filtered the caraway seed solution, transfer the filtrate to a cleaned 30 mL beaker and wash out the receiving flask with acetone. During filtration, if you see no solvents left at the receiving flask, you can add a minimum amount of ether (~5-10 mL) to dissolve the solid substance. Ether is volatile at room temperature.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Chem 215 spring08. OpenStax CNX. Mar 21, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10496/1.8
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