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This module explains how to create an audio graph of a sinusoid in a format that is accessible to blind students. The program could easily be modified to create audio graphs of other functions such as parabolas, exponentials, etc. The module also explains how to create stereo sound.

Table of contents


This module is part of a collection titled Accessible Objected-Oriented Programming Concepts for Blind Students using Java . It explains how to create an audio graph of a sinusoid in a format that isaccessible to blind students. The program could easily be modified to create audio graphs of other functions such as parabolas, exponentials, etc.

Previous modules have created only monaural sound. This module also explains how to create stereo sound.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this module in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find the listings while you are reading about them.


  • Listing 1 . Beginning of the class named AudioGraphSinusoidal.
  • Listing 2 . Beginning of the getMelody method.
  • Listing 3 . Declare speaker volume variables.
  • Listing 4 . Miscellaneous operations.
  • Listing 5 . Map the sinusoidal function values into pulse frequencies.
  • Listing 6 . Shape the pulse amplitude from beginning to end.
  • Listing 7 . Compute the gain for the left and right speakers.
  • Listing 8 . Deposit stereo audio data in the melody file.
  • Listing 9 . The class named MusicComposer07.
  • Listing 10 . The class named AudioGraphSinusoidal.

General background information

Previous modules have introduced you to the concept of an audio graph consisting of audio pulses that represent points on the graph of a function.Click AudioGraphSquareWave to hear an audio graph of a square wave function. Click AudioGraphSinusoidal to hear an audio graph of a sinusoidal function. (You should be able to play these audio files with any standard media player that can handle the AU file type. In case you are on the OpenStax site and youare unable to download the audio files, click the Legacy Site link at the top of this page to switch over to the same module on the Legacysite. You should be able to download the audio files from there.)

In this module, I will explain how to create the audio graph of the sinusoid. The program could easily be modified to create audio graphs of other functionssuch as parabolas, exponentials, etc.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
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anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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what does nano mean?
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, Accessible objected-oriented programming concepts for blind students using java. OpenStax CNX. Sep 01, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11349/1.17
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