# 0.10 Physical properties of gases

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## Cartesian diver:

The Cartesian diver is named for Rene Descartes (1596-1650), noted French scientist and philosopher. At this station, you will find a plastic soda bottle containing a medicine dropper, water, and air. Squeeze the bottle.

What happens? Why?

## The egg:

Lightly grease the inside of the neck of a 1 L Erlenmeyer flask with stopcock grease. Clamp the flask onto the stand. Place about 5 mL ${H}_{2}O$ in the flask and gently warm it with a Bunsen burner until the water vaporizes. Do not boil the water to dryness. Meanwhile, prepare an ice water bath in an evaporating dish. While the flask is warm, seat the egg, narrow end down, in the mouth of the flask. Unclamp the flask, allow to cool slightly sitting on the bench and then immerse it in the ice water. (Read the safety notes above to avoid breaking the flask)

Can you get the egg back out again?

Assuming that the flask reaches the maximum vacuum (minimum pressure) possible before the egg is drawn into the flask, calculate the minimum pressure reached in the flask.

## Expanding balloon:

Partially inflate a balloon. Place the balloon inside the vacuum chamber and close the chamber with the black rubber circle and the top of the chamber carefully centered on the base (A partially inflated balloon may already be in the dessicator). Close the needle valve (at the bottom of the black rubber tubing) by turning it clockwise. Turn the stopcock to the up position to connect the chamber to the vacuum pump. What happens? To open the chamber, turn the stopcock to the left position and open the needle valve.

## Bonus 2 points:

1pt to name a real life example of the physical properties of gases at work

1pt for a good explanation of how and why it works according to what you have learned in the lab.

## (total 10 points)

Hopefully here for the Pre-Lab

Note: In preparing this report you are free to use references and consult with others. However, you may not copy from other students’work (including your laboratory partner) or misrepresent your own data (see honor code).

Name(Print then sign): ___________________________________________________

Lab Day: ___________________Section: ________TA__________________________

• Define diffusion and write down equation for diffusion rate:
• Write equation for ideal gas law and describe each term.
• Define Charles’, Boyle’s, and Avogadro’s law:
• Fill the blanks (which law applies):
• When temperature increases in a close balloon the volume ________.

_______Law

• When pressure is applied to a close balloon the volume _________.

_______Law

• When temperature decreases in a close balloon the pressure _________.

_______Law

## (total 80 points)

Hopefully here for the Report

Note: In preparing this report you are free to use references and consult with others. However, you may not copy from other students’work (including your laboratory partner) or misrepresent your own data (see honor code).

1. Diffusion:

At the end of your report attach the graphs of each trial.

The average of the rates for the three trials is----------------

The root mean square speed of carvone molecules at 25C is

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Compare the result with the diffusion rate you measured. If they are significantly different, offer an explanation.

Would the diffusion take place faster in a vacuum?

2. Gas Laws in a Soda Can:

Describe what happens.

Explain why it happens. You may repeat this experiment using a second soda can if you wish.

Why is it necessary to invert the can in the water?

What would happen if a rigid container were used?

3. Balloon in liquid nitrogen:

The estimated size of the balloon in liters is--------------

What is the pressure inside the balloon before it is placed in the liquid nitrogen?

What is the pressure inside the balloon after it is placed in the liquid nitrogen?

Use the ideal gas law to calculate the percent change in volume expected on going from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Is the volume of the cold balloon consistent with what you calculated, or is it larger or smaller?

Suggest an explanation for your observation. Explain all of your observations in detail using the kinetic molecular theory of gases.

How does the liquid nitrogen cool the gas in the balloon?

4. Balloon in a flask:

What was the effect as the flask cools?

Can you get the balloon back out again?

5. Kissell's tygon tube:

What happens?

Why?

6. Cartesian diver:

What happens?

Why?

7. The Egg:

What happens?

Why?

Can you get the egg back out again?

The minimum pressure reached in the flask is -------------------

8. Expanding balloon:

What happens?

Moore's bonus 2 points:

1pt to name a real life example of the physical properties of gases at work

1pt for a good explanation of how and why it works according to what you have learned in the lab.

#### Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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