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Substitution and parallel lines

If computations eliminate all the variables and produce a contradiction, the two lines of a system are parallel, and the system is called inconsistent.

Sample set b

Solve the system { 2 x y = 1 4 x 2 y = 4 ( 1 ) ( 2 )

Step 1:  Solve equation 1 for y .
      2 x y = 1 y = 2 x + 1 y = 2 x 1

Step 2:  Substitute the expression 2 x 1 for y into equation 2.
      4 x 2 ( 2 x 1 ) = 4

Step 3:  Solve the equation obtained in step 2.
      4 x 2 ( 2 x 1 ) = 4 4 x 4 x + 2 = 4 2 4

Computations have eliminated all the variables and produce a contradiction. These lines are parallel.
A graph of two parallel lines. One line is labeled with the equation two x minus y is equal to one and passes through the points one, one, and zero, negative one. A second line is labeled with the equation four x minus two y is equal to four and passes through the points one, zero, and zero, negative two.
This system is inconsistent.

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Practice set b

Slove the system { 7 x 3 y = 2 14 x 6 y = 1

Substitution produces 4 1 , or 1 2 2 , a contradiction. These lines are parallel and the system is inconsistent.

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Substitution and coincident lines

The following rule alerts us to the fact that the two lines of a system are coincident.

Substitution and coincident lines

If computations eliminate all the variables and produce an identity, the two lines of a system are coincident and the system is called dependent.

Sample set c

Solve the system { 4 x + 8 y = 8 3 x + 6 y = 6 ( 1 ) ( 2 )

Step 1:  Divide equation 1 by 4 and solve for x .
      4 x + 8 y = 8 x + 2 y = 2 x = 2 y + 2

Step 2:  Substitute the expression 2 y + 2 for x in equation 2.
      3 ( 2 y + 2 ) + 6 y = 6

Step 3:  Solve the equation obtained in step 2.
      3 ( 2 y + 2 ) + 6 y = 6 6 y + 6 + 6 y = 6 6 = 6

Computations have eliminated all the variables and produced an identity. These lines are coincident.
A graph of two coincident lines. The line is labeled with the equation x plus two y is equal to two and a second label with the equation three x plus six y is equal to six. The lines pass through the points zero, one and two, zero. Since the lines are coincident, they have the same graph.
This system is dependent.

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Practice set c

Solve the system { 4 x + 3 y = 1 8 x 6 y = 2

Computations produce 2 = 2 , an identity. These lines are coincident and the system is dependent.

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Systems in which a coefficient of one of the variables is not 1 or cannot be made to be 1 without introducing fractions are not well suited for the substitution method. The problem in Sample Set D illustrates this “messy” situation.

Sample set d

Solve the system { 3 x + 2 y = 1 4 x 3 y = 3 ( 1 ) ( 2 )

Step 1:  We will solve equation ( 1 ) for y .
      3 x + 2 y = 1 2 y = 3 x + 1 y = 3 2 x + 1 2

Step 2:  Substitute the expression 3 2 x + 1 2 for y in equation ( 2 ) .
      4 x 3 ( 3 2 x + 1 2 ) = 3

Step 3:  Solve the equation obtained in step 2.
      4 x 3 ( 3 2 x + 1 2 ) = 3 Multiply both sides by the LCD ,  2 . 4 x + 9 2 x 3 2 = 3 8 x + 9 x 3 = 6 17 x 3 = 6 17 x = 9 x = 9 17

Step 4:  Substitute x = 9 17 into the equation obtained in step 1 , y = 3 2 x + 1 2 .
      y = 3 2 ( 9 17 ) + 1 2
      y = 27 34 + 17 34 = 10 34 = 5 17
     We now have x = 9 17 and y = 5 17 .

Step 5:  Substitution will show that these values of x and y check.

Step 6:  The solution is ( 9 17 , 5 17 ) .

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Practice set d

Solve the system { 9 x 5 y = 4 2 x + 7 y = 9

These lines intersect at the point ( 1 , 1 ) .

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Exercises

For the following problems, solve the systems by substitution.

{ 3 x + 2 y = 9 y = 3 x + 6

( 1 , 3 )

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{ 5 x 3 y = 6 y = 4 x + 12

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{ 2 x + 2 y = 0 x = 3 y 4

( 1 , 1 )

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{ 3 x + 5 y = 9 x = 4 y 14

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{ 3 x + y = 4 2 x + 3 y = 10

( 2 , 2 )

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{ 4 x + y = 7 2 x + 5 y = 9

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{ 6 x 6 = 18 x + 3 y = 3

( 4 , 1 3 )

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{ x y = 5 2 x + y = 5

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{ 5 x + y = 4 10 x 2 y = 8

Dependent (same line)

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{ x + 4 y = 1 3 x 12 y = 1

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{ 4 x 2 y = 8 6 x + 3 y = 0

( 1 , 2 )

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{ 2 x + 3 y = 12 2 x + 4 y = 18

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{ 3 x 9 y = 6 6 x 18 y = 5

inconsistent (parallel lines)

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{ x + 4 y = 8 3 x 12 y = 10

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{ x + y = 6 x y = 4

( 1 , 5 )

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{ 2 x + y = 0 x 3 y = 0

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{ 4 x 2 y = 7 y = 4

( 15 4 , 4 )

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{ x + 6 y = 11 x = 1

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{ 2 x 4 y = 10 3 x = 5 y + 12

( 1 , 3 )

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{ y + 7 x + 4 = 0 x = 7 y + 28

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{ x + 4 y = 0 x + 2 3 y = 10 3

( 4 , 1 )

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{ x = 24 5 y x 5 4 y = 3 2

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{ x = 11 6 y 3 x + 18 y = 33

inconsistent (parallel lines)

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{ 2 x + 1 3 y = 4 3 x + 6 y = 39

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{ 4 5 x + 1 2 y = 3 10 1 3 x + 1 2 y = 1 6

( 1 , 1 )

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{ x 1 3 y = 8 3 3 x + y = 1

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Exercises for review

( [link] ) Find the quotient: x 2 x 12 x 2 2 x 15 ÷ x 2 3 x 10 x 2 2 x 8 .

( x 4 ) 2 ( x 5 ) 2

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( [link] ) Find the difference: x + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 6 x + 1 x 2 + 4 x + 3 .

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( [link] ) Simplify 81 x 8 y 5 z 4 .

9 x 4 y 2 z 2 y

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( [link] ) Use the quadratic formula to solve 2 x 2 + 2 x 3 = 0.

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( [link] ) Solve by graphing { x y = 1 2 x + y = 5
An xy coordinate plane with gridlines labeled negative five and five with increments of one unit for both axes.

( 2 , 1 )
A graph of two lines intersecting at a point with coordinates negative two, one. One of the lines is passing through a point with coordinates zero, five and the other line is passing through a point with coordinates zero, negative one.

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10614/1.3
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