# 0.5 Focus detection

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Focus detection

Focus Detection:

One important aspect of images is focus. While qualitatively deciding whether an image is in focus or not is relatively easy, quantitatively it can be quite difficult. One way to detect whether or not an image is in focus is by examining its power spectrum.

## Power spectrum and focus

It is generally assumed that natural images are made up of fractals, and it can be shown that the power spectrum (power as a function of frequency) of a natural image should fall off as

$\frac{1}{{f}^{2}}$

where f is the frequency.

As an image goes out of focus, it becomes blurred. That is to say that the edges are less sharp. If an image contains less sharp edges, its power spectrum will contain less high-frequency power. The power spectrum of an out-of-focus image should, therefore, fall off faster than an in-focus image.

So by calculating the power spectrum and examining its linear regression on a loglog plot (log[power] vs log[frequency]), we can get an indicator of focus.

## Calculating the power spectrum

The power specturm is simply the square of the two dimensional Fourier transform:

$P\left({k}_{x},{k}_{y}\right)=\mid F{\left({k}_{x},{k}_{y}\right)}^{2}\mid$

where the two dimensional Fourier transform is given by:

$F\left({k}_{x},{k}_{y}\right)=\sum _{x=0}^{N-1}\sum _{y=0}^{N-1}f{\left({k}_{x},{k}_{y}\right)}^{2}{e}^{\frac{-\mathrm{j2\pi }}{N}\left({\text{xk}}_{x}+{\text{yk}}_{y}\right)}$

Note that denotes an individual image pixel. You may have noticed that the above equations define a square image. While a non-symmetric two dimensional Fourier transform exists, using square images eases the process.

Because whether or not an image is in focus depends on the magnitude of power as a function of frequency, once the two dimensional power spectrum is computed as above, we radially average the spectrum. That is, the average of the values which lie on a circle a distance R from the origin is taken. Because frequency increases linearly in all directions from the origin, radially averaging the power spectrum gives the average power at one frequency , effectively collapsing the two dimensional spectrum to one dimension. It should be noted that $F\left({k}_{x},{k}_{y}\right)$ has been centered around baseband, meaning the frequency of the rotionally averaged power spectrum extends from 0 to N/2 -1.

The power spectrum’s falloff on a loglog plot can now be examined to determine focus.

## Illustrative example of focus analysis on entire image

The following images show the results of a linear regression of the power spectrum on a loglog plot for an in-focus image and an out-of-focus image.

As expected, the out-of-focus image yielded a linear regression with a slope of -3.3, while the in-focus image yielded a linear regression with a slope of -2.3, indicating that the out-of-focus image has fewer high frequency components.

## Determining regions of focus

Because frequency and power should be related exponentially as stated before, the loglog plot should display a linear relationship. Taking the linear regression of the loglog plot leads to an estimate of the frequency fall off. For example, if the linear regression where to return a slope of -2, we know that the power spectrum falls off as $\frac{1}{{f}^{2}}$ .

The same principles used to determine whether or not an image is in focus can be used to determine what region of an image is in focus. Because cameras can only focus on one spatial plane, in a single picture certain objects will be more in focus than others. To determine which region of an image is in focus, one simply has to divide the image into separate spatial region and then use the methods described above on each region. The region whose power spectrum conforms most closely to the $\frac{1}{{f}^{2}}$ fall off can be considered the center of focus in the image.

#### Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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