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Sodium

Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid. It is responsible for one-half of the osmotic pressure gradient that exists between the interior of cells and their surrounding environment. People eating a typical Western diet, which is very high in NaCl, routinely take in 130 to 160 mmol/day of sodium, but humans require only 1 to 2 mmol/day. This excess sodium appears to be a major factor in hypertension (high blood pressure) in some people. Excretion of sodium is accomplished primarily by the kidneys. Sodium is freely filtered through the glomerular capillaries of the kidneys, and although much of the filtered sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule, some remains in the filtrate and urine, and is normally excreted.

Hyponatremia is a lower-than-normal concentration of sodium, usually associated with excess water accumulation in the body, which dilutes the sodium. An absolute loss of sodium may be due to a decreased intake of the ion coupled with its continual excretion in the urine. An abnormal loss of sodium from the body can result from several conditions, including excessive sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea; the use of diuretics; excessive production of urine, which can occur in diabetes; and acidosis, either metabolic acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis.

A relative decrease in blood sodium can occur because of an imbalance of sodium in one of the body’s other fluid compartments, like IF, or from a dilution of sodium due to water retention related to edema or congestive heart failure. At the cellular level, hyponatremia results in increased entry of water into cells by osmosis, because the concentration of solutes within the cell exceeds the concentration of solutes in the now-diluted ECF. The excess water causes swelling of the cells; the swelling of red blood cells—decreasing their oxygen-carrying efficiency and making them potentially too large to fit through capillaries—along with the swelling of neurons in the brain can result in brain damage or even death.

Hypernatremia is an abnormal increase of blood sodium. It can result from water loss from the blood, resulting in the hemoconcentration of all blood constituents. Hormonal imbalances involving ADH and aldosterone may also result in higher-than-normal sodium values.

Potassium

Potassium is the major intracellular cation. It helps establish the resting membrane potential in neurons and muscle fibers after membrane depolarization and action potentials. In contrast to sodium, potassium has very little effect on osmotic pressure. The low levels of potassium in blood and CSF are due to the sodium-potassium pumps in cell membranes, which maintain the normal potassium concentration gradients between the ICF and ECF. The recommendation for daily intake/consumption of potassium is 4700 mg. Potassium is excreted, both actively and passively, through the renal tubules, especially the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts. Potassium participates in the exchange with sodium in the renal tubules under the influence of aldosterone, which also relies on basolateral sodium-potassium pumps.

Questions & Answers

Me phone no petandi meku doubt vunte nenu phone chesi cheputhanu
Mohan Reply
What is respiratory disease
Rita Reply
What are the importance of homeostasis in human body?
Pablo Reply
homeostasis
Abena
it help to keep our salt and water balance
Husna
Homeostasis regulates and mentain internal equilibrium (ie temperature and pH) of the body.
Edmund
maintain temp and ph so our enzyme works properly
Husna
The inability of the body regulating and maintaining the temp. and pH results in disease affection.
Edmund
formation of the bone
Ali Reply
.
mohamed
عاوز ايه يعني من الفورمايشن
Doctor
notes on cell theory and discovery
Masika Reply
electro phisiology meand
aparna Reply
rouleaux formation factors
Hridya Reply
can anyone suggest me how to learn forearm and hand topic of anatomy?
Anjali Reply
can anyone suggest me how to learn forearm and hand anatomy topic?
Anjali
can anyone suggest me how to learn forearm and hand topic of anatomy? pls pls tell
Anjali
check out youtube videos for trickss and while learning the boness part keep the bone wid u and learn ..... hope it helps u
Subuhi
ohk
Anjali
formation of the bone
Ali
what is the space between d dura mater and pia mater
Uwakwe Reply
Subdural space
Juveriya
Actually sub dural space is space between dura and arachnoid mater And sub arachnoid space is space between arachnoid and pia mater
Juveriya
the smallest bone in the body
Bahja Reply
stapes is the smallest bone in human Body
dipayan
Yeah
Ridwan
what is cell membrane
Hajara
cell membrane is like a protective cover of a cell and it's cytoplasm
dipayan
thanks
Hajara
list two adpitive mechanism that control homeostasis condition
Hajara
positive and negative feedback Mechanism
dipayan
can we stain sputum samples?
Apai Reply
Yes
Dorcas
wat do we use in staining them?
Apai
gram stain
Mawuli
Hello
bona
zeel Nelson stain
bona
why the ganglion cyst bumps?
dipayan Reply
i think fats gather under the skin
Matthew
but there were some tissue is present
dipayan
plz Matthew clearly present your answer
dipayan
appilied physiology of umn and lmn lesion
Ananthan Reply
what is umn and imn
dipayan
I don't know
bona
saaa
Patricia
Upper motor neurons (UMN) are responsible for conveying impulses for voluntary motor activity through descending motor pathways that make up the upper motor neurons. UMN send fibers to the LMN, and that exert direct or indirect supranuclear control over the LMN of the cranial and spinal nerves.
Amit
What is your doubt
Mohan
Anatomy of functions of the skeletal system
Tobokwa Reply
The processes of intracellular and extracellular transport
Daniel Reply
The processes involved in extracellular and intracellular communication
Daniel
Cell signaling can occur outside the cell by the binding of a ligand (polar molecule/ ions) to a receptor specific to the ligand embedded in the plasma membrane of the cell. Cell signaling can also occur inside the cell by the binding of a ligand (nonpolar molecule) to a receptor inside the cytosol
Carmelo
Receptors will always show specificity for specific types of ligands. For ex, insulin hormone will only bind to insulin receptors. Testosterone will always bind to an androgen receptor and so on.
Carmelo
Ok
Ridwan
Yes
Mohan
yes
Nasrat

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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