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The main features of interpretive, or qualitative, research echo those of the subjective models:

1.They focus on the perceptions of individuals rather than the whole organisation. The subject’s individual perspective is central to qualitative research(Morrison, 2002, p. 19).

2.Interpretive research is concerned with the meanings, or interpretations, placed on events by participants.“All human life is experienced and constructed from a subjectiveperspective”(Morrison, 2002, p. 19).

3.Research findings are interpreted using“grounded”theory.“Theory is emergent and must arise from particular situations; it should be“grounded”on data generated by the research act. Theory should not proceed research but follow it”(Cohen et al, 2000, p. 23).

Postmodern leadership

Subjective theorists prefer to stress the personal qualities of individuals rather than their officialpositions in the organization. The subjective view is that leadership is a product of personal qualities and skills and notsimply an automatic outcome of official authority.

The notion of post-modern leadership aligns closely with the principles of subjective models. Keough and Tobin(2001, p. 2) say that“current postmodern culture celebrates the multiplicity of subjective truths as defined by experience andrevels in the loss of absolute authority.”They identify several key features of postmodernism (Keough&Tobin, 2001):

  • Language does not reflect reality.
  • Reality does not exist; there are multiple realities.
  • Any situation is open to multiple interpretations.
  • Situations must be understood at local level with particular attention to diversity.

(p. 11-13)

Sackney and Mitchell (2001) stress the centrality of individual interpretation of events while alsocriticising visionary leadership.“Leaders must pay attention to the cultural and symbolic structure of meaning construed byindividuals and groups . . . postmodern theories of leadership take the focus off vision and place it squarely on voice”(p. 13-14). Instead of a compelling vision articulated by leaders, there aremultiple voices, and diverse cultural meanings.

The limitations of subjective models

Subjective models are prescriptive approaches in that they reflect beliefs about the nature of organizations.They can be regarded as“anti-theories”in that they emerged as a reaction to the perceived limitations of the formal models.Although subjective models introduce several important concepts into the theory of educational management, they have foursignificant weaknesses, which serve to limit their validity:

1.Subjective models are strongly normative in that they reflect the attitudes and beliefs of their supporters.Willower (1980) goes further to describe them as“ideological.”“[Phenomenological] perspectives feature major ideologicalcomponents and their partisans tend to be true believers when promulgating their positions rather than offering them for criticalexamination and test”(p. 7).

Subjective models comprise a series of principles rather than a coherent body of theory:“Greenfield sets out to destroy the central principles of conventional theory butconsistently rejects the idea of proposing a precisely formulated alternative”(Hughes&Bush, 1991, p. 241).

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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