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The ports connected to the LEDs, buttons and buzzer are then initialized.

Finally, the interrupts are activated, and the application waits for the execution of one of two interrupts.

The Basic Timer1 interrupt executes at a frequency of once every second. When this interrupt is occurs, it begins by switching the state of LED1 and LED2. Afterwards, it accesses the memory to fetch the next musical note to be performed. The routine ends with memory pointer management.

The Port 1 ISR begins by evaluating the source of the interrupt. The sound volume is reduced if the button SW1 is pressed. The sound volume is increased if button SW2 is pressed.

System configuration

Timer_b

It is the responsibility of Timer_B to produce the PWM signal that activates the Buzzer. Timer_B counts until the value contained in the TBCCR0 register is reached. It does not generate an interrupt, and must be sourced by SMCLK clock signal:

TBCTL = TBSSEL_2 | CNTL_0 | TBCLGRP_0 |MC_1 | ID_0;

Each PWM signal produced by Timer_B corresponds to a musical note. The relationship between the frequency and the musical note is given in Table 1.

Note SI0 DO RE MI FA SOL LA SI DO2
Freq [Hz] 503 524 587 662 701 787 878 1004 1048

Timer_B has a frequency clock input equal to 7.995392 MHz.

The value to write in the TBCCR0 register in order to generate the desired frequency is:

// TBCCR0 value of the musical notes #define SI0 15895#define DO 15258 #define RE 13620#define MI 12077 #define FA 11405#define SOL 10159 #define LA 9106#define SI 7963 #define DO2 7629TBCCTL4 = OUTMOD_3; // CCR4 interrupt enabledTBCCR4 = space[0]/2;

Timer_a configuration

TACTL = TASSEL_2 |MC_2 | ID_0 | TAIE; // SMCLK, continuous mode up to 0xffff TACCTL1 = CM1 | CCIS_0 | CAP | CCIE;// Capture on rising edge, Cap mode,// Cap/Com int. enable, TACCR1 input signal selected//********************************************************* // Timer A ISR//********************************************************* #pragma vector=TIMERA1_VECTOR__interrupt void TimerA1_ISR (void) {switch (TAIV) {case TAIV_TACCR1: if (capture == 0){T1 = TACCR1; flag = 1;capture = 1; }else { if (flag == 1) {T2 = TACCR1; if (T2>T1) T = T2-T1;} else{TAR = 0; }capture = 0; flag = 0;} break; case TAIV_TACCR2: break;case TAIV_TAIFG:tick++; if (tick == 60){LCD_freq(); tick = 0;} if (flag == 1)flag = 0; break; default: break;} }

Basic timer1

The Basic Timer1 generates an interrupt once every second. It uses two counters in series, where the BTCNT2 counter input uses the BTCNT1 counter output divided by 256. The BTCNT1 counter input is the ACLK clock signal with a frequency of 32.768 kHz.

If BTCNT2 counter selected output is divided by 128, what is the time period associated with the Basic Timer1 interrupt? _________

What are the values to write to the configuration registers?

BTCTL = BTDIV | BT_fCLK2_DIV128; // (ACLK/256)/128 IE2 |= BTIE; // enable BT interrupt//*********************************************************// Basic Timer ISR. Run with 1 sec period //*********************************************************#pragma vector=BASICTIMER_VECTOR __interrupt void basic_timer_ISR(void){ unsigned int read_data; // read data from file , frequency in kHzP2OUT^=0x06; // toogle LED1 and LED2counter++;if (counter == 5){ counter = 0;read_data = 200; TBCCR0 = 7995392/read_data;TBCCR4 = TBCCR0/2; }}

I/o ports configuration

// SW1 and SW2 configuration (Port1) P1SEL&= 0x00; // P1.0 and P1.2 I/O P1DIR&= 0x00; // P1.0 and P1.2 as inputs P1IFG = 0x00;P1IES&= 0xFF // high-to-low transition interrupt P1IE |= 0xFF; // enable port interrupts// LED1 and LED2 configuration (Port2):P2DIR |= 0x06; // P2.2 and P2.1 as outputs P2OUT = 0x04; // LED1 on and LED2 off// Buzzer port configuration (Port3)P3SEL |= 0x20; // P3.5 as special function P3DIR |= 0x20; // P3.5 as digital output

Fll+ configuration

FLL_CTL0 |= DCOPLUS + XCAP18PF; //DCO+ set,freq=xtal*D*N+1 SCFI0 |= FN_4; // x2 DCO freq, 8MHz nominal DCOSCFQCTL = 121; // (121+1) x 32768 x 2 = 7.99 MHz

Analysis of operation

System clocks inspection

The MCLK, SMCLK and ACLK system clocks are available at ports P1.1, P1.4 and P1.5 respectively. These ports are located on the SW2, RESET_CC and VREG_EN lines, which are available on the H2 Header pins 2, 5 and 6. All these resources are available because the Chipcon RF module is not installed and SW2 is not used.

Using the Registers view, set bits 1, 4 and 5 of P1SEL and P1DIR registers to choose the secondary function of their ports, that is, configured as outputs. Connect an oscilloscope probe at these positions to monitor the clock signals.

What are the values measured for each of the system clocks?

ACLK: _____________________

SMCLK: ____________________

MCLK: _____________________

Tbccr4 unit output frequency

With the help of an oscilloscope, it is possible to evaluate the operation of the application. Alternatively, it is possible to listen to the sound produced. By removing jumper JP1 and connecting the oscilloscope to this pin, it is possible to view the PWM signal produced by the microcontroller. The duty-cycle can be reduced or increased by pressing the push buttons SW1 and SW2.

Port p1 interrupt source decoding

All Port P1 interrupt lines share the same interrupt vector. The decoding is done through the P1IFG register.

This process can be observed by entering a breakpoint at the first line of the ISR code.

Execute the application.

The application’s execution is suspended at the breakpoint by pressing either button SW1 or SW2. From this point onwards, run the lines of code step-by-step and observe changes in the register values.

Measurement of electrical current drawn

The power consumption was discussed in the previous point. The electrical power required by the system during operation is measured by replacing the jumper on the Header PWR1 by an ammeter, which indicates the electric current taken by device during operation.

What is the value read? __________

This example and many others are available on the MSP430 Teaching ROM.

Request this ROM, and our other Teaching Materials here (External Link)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, Teaching and classroom laboratories based on the “ez430” and "experimenter's board" msp430 microcontroller platforms and code composer essentials. OpenStax CNX. May 19, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10706/1.3
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