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Introduction

This chapter gives you an opportunity to build on what you have learned in previous grades about data handling and probability. The work done will be mostly of a practical nature. Through problem solving and activities, you will end up mastering further methods of collecting, organising, displaying and analysing data. You will also learn how to interpret data, and not always to accept the data at face value, because data is sometimes misused and abused in order to try to falsely prove or support a viewpoint. Measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode) and dispersion (range, percentiles, quartiles, inter-quartile, semi-inter-quartile range, variance and standard deviation) will be investigated. Of course, the activities involving probability will be familiar to most of you - for example, you may have played dice or card games even before you came to school. Your basic understanding of probability and chance gained so far will be deepened to enable you to come to a better understanding of how chance and uncertainty can be measured and understood.

Standard deviation and variance

The measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode) and measures of dispersion (quartiles, percentiles, ranges) provide information on the data values at the centre of the data set and provide information on the spread of the data. The information on the spread of the data is however based on data values at specific points in the data set, e.g. the end points for range and data points that divide the data set into 4 equal groups for the quartiles. The behaviour of the entire data set is therefore not examined.

A method of determining the spread of data is by calculating a measure of the possible distances between the data and the mean. The two important measures that are used are called the variance and the standard deviation of the data set.

Variance

The variance of a data set is the average squared distance between the mean of the data set and each data value. An example of what this means is shown in [link] . The graph represents the results of 100 tosses of a fair coin, which resulted in 45 heads and 55 tails. The mean of the results is 50. The squared distance between the heads value and the mean is ( 45 - 50 ) 2 = 25 and the squared distance between the tails value and the mean is ( 55 - 50 ) 2 = 25 . The average of these two squared distances gives the variance, which is 1 2 ( 25 + 25 ) = 25 .

Population variance

Let the population consist of n elements { x 1 , x 2 , ... , x n } , with mean x ¯ (read as "x bar"). The variance of the population, denoted by σ 2 , is the average of the square of the distance of each data value from the mean value.

σ 2 = ( ( x - x ¯ ) ) 2 n .

Since the population variance is squared, it is not directly comparable with the mean and the data themselves.

Sample variance

Let the sample consist of the n elements { x 1 , x 2 , ... , x n } , taken from the population, with mean x ¯ . The variance of the sample, denoted by s 2 , is the average of the squared deviations from the sample mean:

s 2 = ( x - x ¯ ) 2 n - 1 .

Since the sample variance is squared, it is also not directly comparable with the mean and the data themselves.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
Other chapter Q/A we can ask
Moahammedashifali Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 11 maths. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11243/1.3
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