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The value of a is 7

The value of *aPtr is 7

Notice that the address of a and the value of aPtr are identical in the output, confirming that the address of a is assigned to the pointer variable aPtr.

Calling functions by reference with pointer arguments

In C++, programmers can use pointers and the dereference operator to simulate call-by-reference. When calling a function with arguments should be modified, the addresses of the arguments are passed. This is normally achieved by applying the address-of operator (&) to the name of the variable whose value will be used. A function receiving an address as an argument must define a pointer parameter to receive the address.


// Cube a variable using call-by-reference

// with a pointer argument


void cubeByReference( int * ); // prototype

int main()


int number = 5;

cout<<"The original value of number is "<<number;

cubeByReference(&number );

cout<<"\nThe new value of number is "<<number<<endl;

return 0;


void cubeByReference( int *nPtr )


*nPtr = (*nPtr) * (*nPtr) * (*nPtr); // cube number in main


The output of the above propgram:

The original value of number is 5

The new value of number is 125

Pointers and arrays

Notice that the name of an array by itself is equivalent to the base address of that array. That is, the name z in isolation is equivalent to the expression&z[0].



int main()


int z[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

cout<<“The value return by ‘z’ itself is

the addr “<<z<<endl;

cout<<“The address of the 0th element of

z is “<<&z[0]<<endl;

return 0;


The output of the above program:

The value return by ‘z’ itself is the addr 0x0065FDF4

The address of the 0th element of z is 0x0065FDF4

Accessing Array Element Using Pointer and Offset

Now, let us store the address of array element 0 in a pointer. Then using the indirection operator, *, we can use the address in the pointer to access each array element.

For example, if we store the address of grade[0] into a pointer named gPtr, then the expression *gPtr refers to grade[0].

One unique feature of pointers is that offset may be included in pointer expression.

For example, the expression *(gPtr + 3) refers to the variable that is three (elements) beyond the variable pointed to by gPtr.

The number 3 in the pointer expression is an offset. So gPtr + 3 points to the element grade[3] of the grade array.



int main()


int b[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40 }, i, offset;

int *bPtr = b; // set bPtr to point to array b

cout<<"Array b printed with:\n"

<<"Array subscript notation\n";

for ( i = 0; i<4; i++ )

cout<<"b["<<i<<"] = "<<b[ i ]<<'\n';

cout<<"\nPointer/offset notation\n";

for ( offset = 0; offset<4; offset++ )

cout<<"*(bPtr + "<<offset<<") = "

<<*( bPtr + offset )<<'\n';

return 0;


The output of the above program is:

Array b printed with:

Array subscript notation

b[0] = 10

b[1] = 20

b[2] = 30

b[3] = 40

Pointer/offset notation

*(bPtr + 0) = 10

*(bPtr + 1) = 20

*(bPtr + 2) = 30

*(bPtr + 3) = 40

Pointers and strings

In C++ we often use character arrays to represent strings. A string is an array of characters ending in a null character (‘\0’). Therefore, we can scan through a string by using a pointer. Thus, in C++, it is appropriate to say that a string is a constant pointer – a pointer to the string’s first character.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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