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Water that has been re-circulated but has received no further treatment and water that has been recovered from processing of food by evaporation or drying, may be used again. This water cannot be used, however, if it poses a risk to the safety and suitability of food.

Water used as an ingredient

You must give careful consideration when using water as an ingredient to prevent problems with safety. Potable water must be used wherever necessary to avoid food contamination.

A safety problem could occur, for example, when water is used as an ingredient in ice cream. The freezing process does not kill microorganisms, so it is very easy for a person to become ill from eating contaminated ice cream.

Water used to make ice and steam

Water may also be used as an ingredient in the form of ice or steam. Certain pathogens can survive the ice- or steam-making process, thus potentially remaining a risk to health if the ice or steam from this source comes into direct contact with food.

Both ice and steam should be produced, handled, and stored to protect them from contaminants.

Many foods have direct contact with steam. The water used in the steaming process should not constitute a threat to the safety and suitability of the products.

Correct construction of wells and plumbing systems

Your facility must have adequate and safe wells and plumbing systems to prevent the risk of contamination by water. As a food safety manager, you should know the requirements for the factory for water usage and also all the systems used. With this knowledge, you can identify any maintenance problems and can thus prevent any subsequent contamination.

Facility requirements

The source of potable water to your facility must be a recognised one, from either a municipal supply or private well. For it to be acceptable for use, the water supply system must be properly constructed, properly maintained, and routinely tested to ensure the safety of the water coming into your factory.

If your factory receives water from a well, the well should be tested at least once a year; however, you should carry out a risk assessment to see how often testing needs to be done. This risk assessment may look at areas such as possible leaking of contaminates from farmland or industrial areas.

You must have potable hot and cold water available in processing areas. There should also be sufficient volume and water pressure to allow appropriate cleaning.

On-site water treatment

If your factory has a non-potable water supply which is required to be used as an ingredient or otherwise come into direct contact with food, then this must be effectively purified to potable water quality to remove any risk of contamination.

Water can be purified onsite by a number of methods:

  • sand filtration
  • membrane filtration
  • charcoal filtration
  • reverse osmosis
  • ion exchange.

Cross-connections and backflow

Any connection or structural arrangement between a potable water system and a non-potable system, liquid or otherwise, through which backflow can occur.
The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into a potable water system from any source other than the intended source.

Backflow, by its very nature of potentially mixing potable and non-potable water systems, can pose a high risk to the health of consumers.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Plumbing connections to sewer lines

Within any water conveyance system, there are two types of plumbing connections: direct and indirect.

Direct Connection
A solid physical joining to a waste or soil line
Indirect Connection
Other than a solid physical joining to a waste or soil line. It can be either an air gap or an air break.

an example of an air gap
Air gap.
an example of an air break
Air break.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Air gap

Air Gap
The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or outlet supplying fixture, or other device, and the flood level rim of the receptacle.

The vertical physical separation must be at least two times the inside diameter of the water inlet pipe above the flood rim level, but cannot be less than one inch.

air gap on lavatory
Air gap on lavatory.
air gap and effective opening
Air gap and effective opening.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Air break

Air Break
A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance, or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interception at a point below the flood level rim.

The connection does not provide an unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere and is not solidly connected, but precludes the possibility of backflow to a potable water source into a sink or dishwasher/or fixture being drained.

backflow prevention devices
Backflow prevention devices.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Monitoring and management

The management of water quality in your company is extremely important. You must develop a routine monitoring system to ensure water safety for the various uses in food production. You must also be aware of any risks posed by the design of the water conveyance system; for example, the cross- connections in the plumbing system.

When your company commissions any new equipment that uses water, it must be monitored prior to full use to ensure that the safety of water is not compromised.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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