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Water that has been re-circulated but has received no further treatment and water that has been recovered from processing of food by evaporation or drying, may be used again. This water cannot be used, however, if it poses a risk to the safety and suitability of food.

Water used as an ingredient

You must give careful consideration when using water as an ingredient to prevent problems with safety. Potable water must be used wherever necessary to avoid food contamination.

A safety problem could occur, for example, when water is used as an ingredient in ice cream. The freezing process does not kill microorganisms, so it is very easy for a person to become ill from eating contaminated ice cream.

Water used to make ice and steam

Water may also be used as an ingredient in the form of ice or steam. Certain pathogens can survive the ice- or steam-making process, thus potentially remaining a risk to health if the ice or steam from this source comes into direct contact with food.

Both ice and steam should be produced, handled, and stored to protect them from contaminants.

Many foods have direct contact with steam. The water used in the steaming process should not constitute a threat to the safety and suitability of the products.

Correct construction of wells and plumbing systems

Your facility must have adequate and safe wells and plumbing systems to prevent the risk of contamination by water. As a food safety manager, you should know the requirements for the factory for water usage and also all the systems used. With this knowledge, you can identify any maintenance problems and can thus prevent any subsequent contamination.

Facility requirements

The source of potable water to your facility must be a recognised one, from either a municipal supply or private well. For it to be acceptable for use, the water supply system must be properly constructed, properly maintained, and routinely tested to ensure the safety of the water coming into your factory.

If your factory receives water from a well, the well should be tested at least once a year; however, you should carry out a risk assessment to see how often testing needs to be done. This risk assessment may look at areas such as possible leaking of contaminates from farmland or industrial areas.

You must have potable hot and cold water available in processing areas. There should also be sufficient volume and water pressure to allow appropriate cleaning.

On-site water treatment

If your factory has a non-potable water supply which is required to be used as an ingredient or otherwise come into direct contact with food, then this must be effectively purified to potable water quality to remove any risk of contamination.

Water can be purified onsite by a number of methods:

  • sand filtration
  • membrane filtration
  • charcoal filtration
  • reverse osmosis
  • ion exchange.

Cross-connections and backflow

Any connection or structural arrangement between a potable water system and a non-potable system, liquid or otherwise, through which backflow can occur.
The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into a potable water system from any source other than the intended source.

Backflow, by its very nature of potentially mixing potable and non-potable water systems, can pose a high risk to the health of consumers.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Plumbing connections to sewer lines

Within any water conveyance system, there are two types of plumbing connections: direct and indirect.

Direct Connection
A solid physical joining to a waste or soil line
Indirect Connection
Other than a solid physical joining to a waste or soil line. It can be either an air gap or an air break.

an example of an air gap
Air gap.
an example of an air break
Air break.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Air gap

Air Gap
The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or outlet supplying fixture, or other device, and the flood level rim of the receptacle.

The vertical physical separation must be at least two times the inside diameter of the water inlet pipe above the flood rim level, but cannot be less than one inch.

air gap on lavatory
Air gap on lavatory.
air gap and effective opening
Air gap and effective opening.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Air break

Air Break
A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance, or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interception at a point below the flood level rim.

The connection does not provide an unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere and is not solidly connected, but precludes the possibility of backflow to a potable water source into a sink or dishwasher/or fixture being drained.

backflow prevention devices
Backflow prevention devices.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Monitoring and management

The management of water quality in your company is extremely important. You must develop a routine monitoring system to ensure water safety for the various uses in food production. You must also be aware of any risks posed by the design of the water conveyance system; for example, the cross- connections in the plumbing system.

When your company commissions any new equipment that uses water, it must be monitored prior to full use to ensure that the safety of water is not compromised.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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