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In this section, you will:
  • Plot points using polar coordinates.
  • Convert from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates.
  • Convert from rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates.
  • Transform equations between polar and rectangular forms.
  • Identify and graph polar equations by converting to rectangular equations.

Over 12 kilometers from port, a sailboat encounters rough weather and is blown off course by a 16-knot wind (see [link] ). How can the sailor indicate his location to the Coast Guard? In this section, we will investigate a method of representing location that is different from a standard coordinate grid.

An illustration of a boat on the polar grid.

Plotting points using polar coordinates

When we think about plotting points in the plane, we usually think of rectangular coordinates ( x , y ) in the Cartesian coordinate plane. However, there are other ways of writing a coordinate pair and other types of grid systems. In this section, we introduce to polar coordinates    , which are points labeled ( r , θ ) and plotted on a polar grid. The polar grid is represented as a series of concentric circles radiating out from the pole    , or the origin of the coordinate plane.

The polar grid is scaled as the unit circle with the positive x- axis now viewed as the polar axis    and the origin as the pole. The first coordinate r is the radius or length of the directed line segment from the pole. The angle θ , measured in radians, indicates the direction of r . We move counterclockwise from the polar axis by an angle of θ , and measure a directed line segment the length of r in the direction of θ . Even though we measure θ first and then r , the polar point is written with the r -coordinate first. For example, to plot the point ( 2 , π 4 ) , we would move π 4 units in the counterclockwise direction and then a length of 2 from the pole. This point is plotted on the grid in [link] .

Polar grid with point (2, pi/4) plotted.

Plotting a point on the polar grid

Plot the point ( 3 , π 2 ) on the polar grid.

The angle π 2 is found by sweeping in a counterclockwise direction 90° from the polar axis. The point is located at a length of 3 units from the pole in the π 2 direction, as shown in [link] .

Polar grid with point (3, pi/2) plotted.
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Plot the point ( 2 , π 3 ) in the polar grid .

Polar grid with point (2, pi/3) plotted.

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Plotting a point in the polar coordinate system with a negative component

Plot the point ( 2 , π 6 ) on the polar grid.

We know that π 6 is located in the first quadrant. However, r = −2. We can approach plotting a point with a negative r in two ways:

  1. Plot the point ( 2 , π 6 ) by moving π 6 in the counterclockwise direction and extending a directed line segment 2 units into the first quadrant. Then retrace the directed line segment back through the pole, and continue 2 units into the third quadrant;
  2. Move π 6 in the counterclockwise direction, and draw the directed line segment from the pole 2 units in the negative direction, into the third quadrant.

See [link] (a). Compare this to the graph of the polar coordinate ( 2 , π 6 ) shown in [link] (b).

Two polar grids. Points (2, pi/6) and (-2, pi/6) are plotted. They are reflections across the origin in Q1 and Q3.
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Plot the points ( 3 , π 6 ) and ( 2 , 9 π 4 ) on the same polar grid.

Points (2, 9pi/4) and (3, -pi/6) are plotted in the polar grid.
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Converting from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates

When given a set of polar coordinates    , we may need to convert them to rectangular coordinates . To do so, we can recall the relationships that exist among the variables x , y , r , and θ .

Questions & Answers

give me an example of a problem so that I can practice answering
Jenefa Reply
dont forget the cube in each variable ;)
of she solves that, well ... then she has a lot of computational force under her command ....
what is a function?
CJ Reply
I want to learn about the law of exponent
Quera Reply
explain this
Hinderson Reply
what is functions?
Angel Reply
A mathematical relation such that every input has only one out.
yes..it is a relationo of orders pairs of sets one or more input that leads to a exactly one output.
Is a rule that assigns to each element X in a set A exactly one element, called F(x), in a set B.
If the plane intersects the cone (either above or below) horizontally, what figure will be created?
Feemark Reply
can you not take the square root of a negative number
Sharon Reply
No because a negative times a negative is a positive. No matter what you do you can never multiply the same number by itself and end with a negative
Actually you can. you get what's called an Imaginary number denoted by i which is represented on the complex plane. The reply above would be correct if we were still confined to the "real" number line.
Suppose P= {-3,1,3} Q={-3,-2-1} and R= {-2,2,3}.what is the intersection
Elaine Reply
can I get some pretty basic questions
Ama Reply
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
is precalculus needed to take caculus
Amara Reply
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
Mars Reply
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
Conney Reply
x is different from -5&3
All real x except 5 and - 3
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
jeric Reply
Don't think that you can.
By using some imaginary no.
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
jeric Reply
What are the question marks for?
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
Abena Reply
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Practice Key Terms 3

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