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A template for evaluating functions

In addition to the AudioGraph generator program named MusicComposer10 , this module also develops a simple template for writing programs to evaluate functions and to write theresults into a text file. The zip file mentioned earlier contains the source code for programs to evaluate all of the functions in the above list . This template is so simple that a student with minimal programming knowledge could easily write her ownprograms to evaluate other functions. I will explain the template later .

The audio pulse rate

You may have noticed that the output pulses in most of the audio files in the above list are delivered to the speakers at a fairly rapid rate. The output pulse rate (in pulses per second) is specified by the user as a command-line parameter when the program is run. (Most of the examples in the above list were run at 12 pulses per second but Sinusoid01 was run at only 5 pulses per second.) An overview of the output from a function can be achieved using a fast output pulse rate. A more detailed audio analysis of the outputcan then be achieved by running the program with a slower output rate. And, if you need to do detailed numeric analysis, the numeric data is available forexamination in the corresponding text file.

Play or file ?

Another user input parameter specifies whether the melody is to be played immediately or is to be saved in an audio file for playback later. Saving it inan audio file makes it very convenient to listen to over and over to allow the information content to "sink into" the brain. In addition, a student can buildup a library of audio files for different functions for review later, such as when studying for a test.

Not a substitute for an embossed image

An AudioGraph is not a substitute for an embossed image of a graph. However, it may be much quicker and easier to produce, it may tell you if you need totake the time and effort to create an embossed image, and it may enhance the learning process even if you do produce an embossed image.

For the benefit of those students who have the ability to produce embossed images, the Figures section provides an image for each AudioGraph listed above . In addition, the downloadable zip file contains the JPEG files for those images.

Discussion and sample code

The program named Sinc01

Since this module is all about evaluating functions, I will begin with an explanation of the template that I have developed to evaluate a function and to writethe results of the evaluation into an output text file. A complete listing of the program named Sinc01 is provided in Listing 16 . As is my custom, I will break the program down and explain it in fragments.

This program produces an output text file containing values for y as a function of x for the so called sinc function (more on this later) .

The contents of the text file can be converted into audio and either played or written into an audio file of type AU for playback later using the programnamed AudioGraph01 .

A sinc function

The function that is evaluated by this program is the classic sin(x)/x function, otherwise known a the sinc function. It appears frequently in digital signal processing (DSP) and is one ofmy favorites.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Accessible objected-oriented programming concepts for blind students using java. OpenStax CNX. Sep 01, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11349/1.17
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