# 1.10 Sampling and data: using spreadsheets to view and summarize  (Page 6/6)

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## Optional classroom exercise:

At your computer, try this exercise: (1) Open the file, Statistics First Day of Class Survey that you worked on previously (2) create a new worksheet tab and label it Frequency Distributions Categorical Data, and another worksheet tab and label it Frequency distributions Quantitative Data; (3) open the file in Google Spreadsheet or Excel; (4) pick a column of data that is categorical and has been “cleaned” and create a countif frequency chart with all the appropriate labels for rows and columns. And (5) save the file again and post in the appropriate Moodle assignment.

## Pivot chart or pivot table:

An alternate process for creating a frequency, relative frequency, and commulative relative frequency chart can be achieved by using a pivot chart or pivot table. A pivot table is a data visualization and summarization tool found in most spreadsheets. It is a quick way to create tables, either horizontal or vertical thereby a “pivot table”. We will use pivot tables particularly when we look at bi-variate data, since we will want to summarize data taking in account the contributions of two variables. For right now we are only interested in summarizing one variable so the directions are simplified.

One can create a pivot chart or table to display frequency, relative frequency, and cumulative relative frequency. When using the pivot function in Google or Excel, one only has to select the column one wants to summarize and then decide “how” the data will be presented. We will create a pivot table using the same column of data, “How did you arrive on campus today?” We will present a pivot table in Google Spreadsheet first and then in Excel.

## Frequency Distribution for Quantitative Data :

One can create a frequency distribution for quantitative data using the above techniques. One will need to create categories for the frequency distribution. In the next chapter we will discuss processes for creating these categories. In this chapter you will just be counting the data that fits the criteria listed. So using the countif principles with criteria for the groups (=countif(cell range, criteria) or such as =COUNTIF(H1:H12, "<=30") for counting all the students who have 30 or less credit hours, then =COUNTIF(H\$1:H\$12, ">30") - COUNTIF(H\$1:H\$12, ">60") to count all the student who have 31 to 60 credit hours, etc. Note that the criteria follows the cell addresses. There is a comma between the cell range and the criteria. The criteria are encapsulated in quotation marks.

## Optional classroom exercise:

At your computer, try this exercise: (1) Open the file, Statistics First Day of Class Survey that you worked on previously; (2) open the file in Google Spreadsheet or Excel; (3) Go to your tab labeled Frequency Distributions Quantitative Data; (4) pick column of data that is quantitative and has been “cleaned” and create a countif frequency chart with all the appropriate labels for rows and columns. And (5) save the file again and post in the appropriate Moodle assignment.

## Optional creative activity – horizontal dot plot for quantitative data:

A horizontal dot plot can be created by using your frequency table and creating one more column and using the repetition formula =REPT(“criteria”, count) so if you want to create a dot plot you will repeat ● and you can use the count in your frequency column. If I was doing the frequency for the number of credit hours completed the formula would be ‘Rept(“●”, d25). I would then copy and paste this formula down to the end of my frequencies. And end up with the picture below. To find the ●symbol, go to the insert tab on your ribbon. Pick symbol from the most right block on the insert tab ribbon. Click on the down arrow for symbols. Pick more symbols. Under the recently used symbols you will find a box for character code. Enter the character code 25cf for a black dot. We will use a wide dot for other graphs and its character code is 25cb

#### Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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