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Micrograph shows purple-stained cells in a white tissue. The white tissue is surrounded by tissue that stains pink.
The islets of Langerhans are clusters of endocrine cells found in the pancreas; they stain lighter than surrounding cells. (credit: modification of work by Muhammad T. Tabiin, Christopher P. White, Grant Morahan, and Bernard E. Tuch; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

Pineal gland

The pineal gland produces melatonin. The rate of melatonin production is affected by the photoperiod (amount of light in a 24-hour period). Nerves from the visual pathways innervate the pineal gland. During the day (light), little melatonin is produced; however, melatonin production increases during the night (dark). In some mammals, melatonin has an inhibitory affect on reproductive functions by decreasing production and maturation of sperm, oocytes, and reproductive organs. Lastly, melatonin is involved in biological rhythms, particularly circadian rhythms such as the sleep-wake cycle and eating habits.

Gonads

The gonads—the male testes and female ovaries—produce steroid hormones. The testes produce androgens, testosterone being the most prominent, which allow for the development of secondary sex characteristics and the production of sperm cells. The ovaries produce estradiol and progesterone, which cause secondary sex characteristics and prepare the body for childbirth.

Endocrine Glands and their Associated Hormones
Endocrine Gland Associated Hormones Effect
Hypothalamus releasing and inhibiting hormones regulate hormone release from pituitary gland; produce oxytocin; produce uterine contractions and milk secretion in females
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) water reabsorption from kidneys; vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure
Pituitary (Anterior) growth hormone (GH) promotes growth of body tissues, protein synthesis; metabolic functions
prolactin (PRL) promotes milk production
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates thyroid hormone release
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates hormone release by adrenal cortex, glucocorticoids
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates gamete production (both ova and sperm); secretion of estradiol
luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates androgen production by gonads; ovulation, secretion of progesterone
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) stimulates melanocytes of the skin increasing melanin pigment production.
Pituitary (Posterior) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys
oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth; milk ejection; stimulates ductus deferens and prostate gland contraction during emission
Thyroid thyroxine, triiodothyronine stimulate and maintain metabolism; growth and development
calcitonin reduces blood Ca 2+ levels
Parathyroid parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases blood Ca 2+ levels
Adrenal (Cortex) aldosterone increases blood Na + levels; increase K + secretion
cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone increase blood glucose levels; anti-inflammatory effects
Adrenal (Medulla) epinephrine, norepinephrine stimulate fight-or-flight response; increase blood gluclose levels; increase metabolic activities
Pancreas insulin reduces blood glucose levels
glucagon increases blood glucose levels
Pineal gland melatonin regulates some biological rhythms and protects CNS from free radicals
Testes androgens regulate, promote, increase or maintain sperm production; male secondary sexual characteristics
Ovaries estrogen promotes uterine lining growth; female secondary sexual characteristics
progestins promote and maintain uterine lining growth

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of biology. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11569/1.25
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