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Unintentionally added chemicals

There are a number of unintentionally introduced chemicals added to foods by agricultural processes, including

  • pesticides
  • fungicides
  • herbicides
  • fertilizers
  • antibiotics
  • growth hormones.

These substances are prohibited in certain countries. To ensure your company is complying with legislation where the food is sold, you should carefully review the appropriate legislation.

There are private standards and business-to-business requirements that can be stricter than legislative requirements, and the customer will closely scrutinize the product for the presence and level of substances that violate these standards.

Hazards from chemical sources.

Controls of chemical hazards

Having a management system in place that indentifies sampling points and sampling levels is good practice to reduce the risk of chemical hazards. The table shows suggested areas of inspection.

Physical hazards

A physical hazard is any potential harmful extraneous matter not normally found in food. They are different to biological or chemical hazards: they generally cause problems for relatively few consumers per incident. The result of personal injuries is usually not life-threatening but can cause considerable personal distress to the consumer. Typical examples are broken teeth, cut mouths, and choking.

Examples of physical hazards

  • metal fragments
  • glass particles
  • wood splinters
  • rock fragments
  • stones
  • bone fragments (meat and poultry)

Control points for physical hazards must be identified during the process and storage of food products. Such can be done by using a hazard analysis technique.

Preventing physical hazards

Preventive maintenance of equipment is extremely important to greatly reduce the risk of physical contamination.

Equipment failure or breakage can allow physical hazards to enter foods. This happens usually during the processing stage. Routine inspections and maintenance of the equipment is good practice.

Screens and filters used in liquid processing can identify problems in equipment upstream. By regularly inspecting the screens or filters, objects from equipment (broken machine parts or rubber seals, for example) can easily be seen and further contamination reduced.

Control or detection equipment

Detection equipment is very useful in identifying physical hazards in foods. There are a number of methods that can be used for different processes:

  • magnet – ferrous metals
  • metal detector – ferrous and non-ferrous metals
  • X-ray equipment – all types of physical hazards
  • screen or sifter – separation by size
  • aspirator – segregation by weight
  • “Riffle Board” – removal of stones from beans
  • bone separator – mechanically-separated meat.

Employee practices and physical hazards

The staff can pose a risk to foods by physical hazard contamination. In order to prevent/reduce this risk, your staff must be made aware of company policies in regard to hazard prevention. An example is the wearing of jewelry.

Your staff should also be encouraged to make you aware of any risk of possible physical product contamination they observe while at work.

Sources and controls of physical hazards

As a food safety manager, you must have in place an effective management system that indentifies the source and control points to reduce the risk of physical hazards. The table shows physical hazard control methods.

Control of food safety hazards

To control food safety hazards effectively, it is important to understand the nature of possible hazards. Not all substances or microorganisms are hazardous until they reach a certain level, so it is important to know and understand the significance of these levels.

Possible hazards are always going to pose a risk to your company, so it is essential to know how to control these hazards. By using different methods such as destroying, removing, preventing, or reducing hazards to an acceptable level, contamination issues will be greatly reduced.

To control food hazards, you must have a system in place that maintains control points within the process. You must have knowledge of how to develop this system so that any change can be taken into account and managed correctly.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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