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Physical and chemical change - grade 10

Matter is all around us. The desks we sit at, the air we breathe and the water we drink are all examples of matter. But matter doesn't always stay the same. It can change in many different ways. In this chapter, we are going to take a closer look at physical and chemical changes that occur in matter.

Physical changes in matter

A physical change is one where the particles of the substances that are involved in the change are not broken up in any way. When water is heated for example, the temperature and energy of the water molecules increases and the liquid water evaporates to form water vapour. When this happens, some kind of change has taken place, but the molecular structure of the water has not changed. This is an example of a physical change .

H 2 O ( l ) H 2 O ( g )

Conduction (the transfer of energy through a material) is another example of a physical change. As energy is transferred from one material to another, the energy of each material is changed, but not its chemical makeup. Dissolving one substance in another is also a physical change.

Physical change
A change that can be seen or felt, but that doesn't involve the break up of the particles in the reaction. During a physical change, the form of matter may change, but not its identity . A change in temperature is an example of a physical change.

You can think of a physical change as a person who is standing still. When they start to move (start walking) then a change has occurred and this is similar to a physical change.

There are some important things to remember about physical changes in matter:

  1. Arrangement of particles
    When a physical change occurs, the particles (e.g. atoms, molecules) may re-arrange themselves without actually breaking up in any way. In the example of evaporation that we used earlier, the water molecules move further apart as their temperature (and therefore energy) increases. The same would be true if ice were to melt. In the solid phase, water molecules are packed close together in a very ordered way, but when the ice is heated, the molecules overcome the forces holding them together and they move apart. Once again, the particles have re-arranged themselves, but have not broken up.
    H 2 O ( s ) H 2 O ( l )
    [link] shows this more clearly. In each phase of water, the water molecule itself stays the same, but the way the molecules are arranged has changed. Note that in the solid phase, we simply show the water molecules as spheres. This makes it easier to see how tightly packed the molecules are. In reality the water molecules would all look the same.
    The arrangement of water molecules in the three phases of matter
  2. Conservation of mass
    In a physical change, the total mass, the number of atoms and the number of molecules will always stay the same. In other words you will always have the same number of molecules or atoms at the end of the change as you had at the beginning.
  3. Energy changes
    Energy changes may take place when there is a physical change in matter, but these energy changes are normally smaller than the energy changes that take place during a chemical change.
  4. Reversibility
    Physical changes in matter are usually easier to reverse than chemical changes. Water vapour for example, can be changed back to liquid water if the temperature is lowered. Liquid water can be changed into ice by simply decreasing the temperature.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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