<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Titration is an analytical laboratory method to determine concentration of a solution. It is based on volumetric stoichiometric analysis involving two or more solutions. In most of the cases, we shall refer aqueous solutions. Clearly, titration is limited to substances, which are soluble in some solvent (may be at a higher temperature). Further, scope of titration is wider than acid-base neutralization reactions. The redox reactions and other complex forming reactions are also studied using titration.

Completion of reaction (equivalence point) is determined using some technique that includes chemical indicators, potentiometer, pH meter and many other techniques. Sometimes, even the change in the color of reacting solution signals the end of titration. In the case of acid base reaction, chemical indicators like methyl orange or phenolphthalein are used to determine end point. These indicators changes color with the change in the pH of the solution.

Some important terms or descriptions used in titration are :

Titrant : It is the standard solution whose concentration is known. It is placed in a thin cylindrical pipe called burette with fine measuring divisions to determine volume accurately. The titrant is streamed drop by drop into the flask containing reactant/ analyte.

Reactant/ analyte : It is the solution whose concentration is not known. Titration method is used to analyze this solution. An accurate volume of the reactant is kept in conical flask. The pH measuring techniques or devices are associated with reactant volume. If chemical indicator is used to identify end point, then very small amount of indicator (few drops) is mixed with the reactant.

Acid base titration indicators

Acid base titration makes use of pH chemical indicators, which changes color in a band of pH values – not at a particular pH value. Typically, we use methyl orange and phenolphthalein to determine end points of acid-base titration. The selection of a particular indicator for the titration is decided on the basis of plot known as pH curve, which is typical of a particular reaction. The indicator is always added to the reactant in the flask.

Methyl orange

Methyl orange is a weak base. It gives end points between pH range between 3.1 and 4.4. In weak acidic or basic environment (pH>4.4), its color is yellow. In high acidic environment (pH<3.1), it is red in color. In the detection range (pH : 3.1 to 4.4), its color is orange. The color changes from yellow to orange (when solution pH falls towards detection range) or red to orange (when solution pH rises towards detection range), indicating equivalence point.

Phenolphthalein

Phenolphthalein is a weak acid. It gives end points between pH range between 8.3 and 10. In strong acidic and weak basic environment (pH<8.3), it is colorless. In strong basic environment (pH>10), it is pink in color. In the detection range (pH : 8.8 to 10), its color is pale pink. The color changes from colorless to pale pink (when solution pH rises towards detection range) or from pink to pale pink (when solution pH falls towards detection range), indicating equivalence point.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Stoichiometry. OpenStax CNX. Jul 05, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10540/1.7
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Stoichiometry' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask