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In order to address these quality characteristics, assessment developers typically follow a set of steps (Herman et. al., 1992; Stiggins, 1994). There are four interconnected phases for developing a performance assessment, involving twelve steps:

Phase 1: design

This initial phase involves identifying the knowledge and skills that a student should possess and developing a set of activities or products that provide an opportunity for students to demonstrate their mastery. The following steps are included in this phase:

1) List and prioritize the knowledge, skills, and dispositions from the curriculum. (Standards)

2) Choose an activity that will allow students to demonstrate mastery of each set of knowledge, skills, or dispositions. (Assessment Activity)

3) Choose a product that captures this activity (an essay, a video, artifacts that identify the assessment object)

4) Brainstorm characteristics of a good product. (Assessment Criteria)

5) Formulate those characteristics into a rubric, including both holistic and analytic rubrics. (Rubric formation) Typically, assessment developers will brainstorm characteristics of a performance that hits the target, one that misses the target (since missing the target is not necessarily just the absence of the hit the target behaviors), and one that reflects developmental behaviors in between. This provides a three level rubric—a five level rubric can simply allow the assessor to place performances between the levels. In any case, any number of levels can be developed through a brainstorming session.

6) Set benchmarks for assessment—what is adequate for program accountability purposes? (Setting Performance Standards)

Phase 2:evaluation

During this phase designers use the performance assessment with students in order to determine whether the activity appropriately measures the knowledge and skills identified earlier. Two additional steps are included.

7) Pilot the performance assessment with some students.

8) Evaluate student work, using the rubric. Choose a set of student work samples that illustrate each level of each rubric. (Identifying Anchor performances) These anchor performances, along with the rubric, are invaluable tools for students to understand the targe they are expected to hit.

Phase 3:implementation

The third phase focuses on implementing the performance assessment. Assessors are trained and the scoring rubric broadly used to assess student work. Two steps are included in this phase.

9) Train assessors using the anchor performances to ensure inter-rater reliability;

10) Apply the rubric to all appropriate students.

Phase 4:program development

This final phase involves examining data about the assessment to identify patterns that may indicate issues of fairness in implementation. It also includes examining again whether the performance activity appropriately measures the knowledge and skills identified in Phase 1. Two final steps are included in this phase.

11) Examine the results—look for patterns in the results. Are there achievement gaps between males and females? Between minority and majority students? If so, there may be an issue of fairness in an assessment. Re-evaluate the assessment in light of any achievement gaps, and modify accordingly.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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