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  • washing hands
  • identifying illnesses
  • spotting cuts, boils, and septic sores
  • preventing contamination by foreign bodies
  • wearing protective clothing.

Personal hygiene

All staff must practice good personal hygiene.

Effectively washing hands and overall good personal hygiene practices will significantly minimize the risk of microbiological contamination of the product.

Hands must be washed

  • upon entering a food handling or processing area
  • immediately after using the toilet
  • after handling raw food or any contaminated material when such could result in contamination of other food items
  • after using a handkerchief
  • after eating, drinking or smoking
  • after handling equipment cleaning or equipment cleaning utensils
  • after handling chemicals.

Since fingernails may harbor bacteria, they must be kept short and clean.

Personal behaviors


You must be able to quickly identify any staff members who may be ill and can cause food borne illness for consumers. Your staff should be aware that they need to report any illnesses and that a decision is required by you, as the food safety manger, as to whether to allow them to begin work.

Illnesses such as colds and influenza should also be considered since coughs and sneezes can carry droplet infection for a considerable distance. Persons with bad coughs should not handle open foods.

To prevent contamination of food by harmful bacteria, blood cuts, spots, and sores must be completely covered by a waterproof dressing, preferably colored blue to aid detection if the dressing should become detached.

Foreign Bodies

Your staff must control foreign bodies:

  • jeweler
  • fingernails
  • hair
  • buttons
  • pen tops
  • soiled plasters
  • fibers and cloth.

The risk of these potential foreign body contaminants can be easily reduced or removed by informing and training your staff of the risks and emphasizing the importance of monitoring in the workplace.

Protective Clothing

Hair nets or hats should be worn to prevent to risk of contamination by hair.

Food handlers must wear clean and washable protective clothing, preferably light-colored without external pockets. Press-studs or Velcro fastening are preferable to buttons. Your staff must be aware that protective clothing is worn to protect the food from risk of contamination, not to keep their own clothes clean.

Monitoring of personal hygiene practices

All food handlers must be aware of the hygiene hazards associated with their job and controls necessary to ensure the safety of food produced. An awareness program should be implemented to ensure the competency of all food handlers to produce safe food.

Supervision and monitoring of staff hygiene practices should be carried out.

All records should be kept of all staff awareness programs, with particular emphasis on supervisory staff.

Cross contamination

Poor quality raw materials and inappropriate packaging are one of the leading causes of product contamination.

The use of poor raw materials and inadequate safety procedures will significantly increase the probability of microbiological contamination.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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