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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The development of medical science

Module 3

Pasteur and lister conquer germs

Viruses, germs and bacteria are invisible to the eye. They are present in the air that surrounds us. Scientists say that a virus is a million times smaller than a millimetre. Every day we inhale many viruses, but fortunately we do not always become ill. (What is a computer virus?)

The person who discovered the real cause of disease, was Louis Pasteur. He discovered that the air around us is full of germs - germs that are so small that they can only be seen under a powerful microscope. These germs cause foodstuffs to decay if they are not preserved in some way.

The discovery of a means of preservation, which made Pasteur famous, bears his name: pasteurization. He proved that food can be preserved for a long time if it is germ-free. He discovered that heating milk to just below boiling point and then cooling it immediately, killed the germs or bacteria in it. This process is called pasteurization and is still used on dairy farms.

Because of this discovery, nearly all types of food, e.g. meat, fish, vegetables and fruit, can be preserved germ-free in containers or tins. The food is cooked in the tin until it is free of germs and the tin is then sealed. This food is safe to keep for a long time.

Activity 1:

How to acquire and use sources

[lo 1.2, 2.1]

Class discussion

a) Use the following questions to open a discussion. Then you can use your own questions!

  • Which milk is the safest for drinking: milk bought in a container in a café or the delicious fresh milk bought on a farm straight from the cow? Why?
  • Say how would you make milk germ-free.
  • Examine five items of food in your house. Do the labels indicate that the contents has been pasteurized?
  • Why can tinned food be kept for such a long time?

b) Reasearch

The vaccine against the dreaded disease called rabies is one of Pasteur’s most important discoveries. He could not determine the origin of the disease because the virus was too small to be seen through his microscope. He produced vaccine for treating people who had been bitten by rabid dogs from the spinal marrow of contaminated rabbits.

On 6 July 1885 the vaccine was used on a nine-year-old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog three days earlier. The boy recovered. Another vaccine proved to be successful! Find out for yourself what happened then ….

Supply the following word(s) that helped you to acquire the rest of the information above:

Contents ____________________________

Index _______________________________

Activity 2:

To understand that different points of view on pasteur could be right or wrong

[lo 2.1]

Louis Pasteur wants to test this vaccine against rabies on a human being for the first time.

  • Explain, on his behalf, by means of the A.P.C. method, what the possibilities could be if the experiment is successful.
  • What will his alternatives be if the experiment fails?
  • What choice does Pasteur make?
  • What would you have done? Why?

Discuss the following in class and complete the assignments.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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