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The researchers in the current study used survey methodology in an effort to investigate whether the inclusion of ethics courses in a principal preparation program made a difference in the development and evaluation of ethical school policies, programs, and practices. The participants who responded to the survey ( n = 206) included principals and assistant principals from Washington ( n = 45) and Texas ( n = 77), as well as current students, enrolled in a principal preparation program from Texas ( n = 84) who had some level of administration experience. Table 1 shows the characteristics by state of the participants in the study.

Participant Characteristics by State
Characteristics Washington n(%) Texas n(%)
Job Title
Principal 26(13%) 75(36%)
Assistant Principal 19(9%) 2(1%)
Graduate Student 0(0%) 84(41%)
Male 32(16%) 51(25%)
Female 13(6%) 110(53%)
HispanicLatino 0(0%) 28(14%)
WhiteCaucasion 38(18%) 125(61%)
BlackAfrican American 0(0%) 7(3%)
Native HawaiianPacific Islander 1(1%) 0(0%)
Asian 3(2%) 1(1%)
2 races 3(2%) 0(0%)
Ethics Course in Prep Program
Yes 11(5%) 65(32%)
No 34(17%) 96(47%)
(19,1) (19,2) (19,3)

Note . Percentages are based upon total respondents.

Materials and procedures

Instrument. The survey was developed by the researchers and based upon various models of ethical decision-making and practices (Rebore, 2001; Shapiro&Gross, 2008). It consisted of a demographic section, 48 statements that participants would rate their level of agreement or disagreement on a five point Likert-scale (0=Neutral, 1= Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3= Agree, 4= Strongly Agree), and three open-ended questions. The initial survey instrument was piloted on 18 doctoral students in educational leadership who had experience as a school principal. Minimal changes were made to language and organization to clarify directions and/or items.

Fifteen of the items in the survey dealt with the principal’s development and evaluation of school policies, programs, and practices addressing issues related to social justice, equity, confidentiality, acceptance, and respect between students and faculty. Principal component analysis (PCA; Jackson, 1991) was used to assure that the fifteen items maintained the three constructs for analysis: Development and evaluation of ethical school polices , development and evaluation of ethical school programs , and development and evaluation of school practices . The average component loading for the policy questions was .92 and explained 85.94% of the variance. The average component loading for the program questions was .92 and explained 83.32% of the variance. Finally, the average component loading for the practices questions was .91 and explained 83.24 % of the variance.

Procedures. Participants were solicited for the current study through list serves, personal and school e-mail, and through electronic communication embedded in an online educational leadership course. Participants were provided a web address to the survey-hosting site (Surveymonkey.com), where instructions for the survey and estimated time of completion were included. Participants were not allowed to progress through the various sections of the survey unless all questions were answered. This restriction was intended to diminish the number of incomplete surveys.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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