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Methods

Participants

The researchers in the current study used survey methodology in an effort to investigate whether the inclusion of ethics courses in a principal preparation program made a difference in the development and evaluation of ethical school policies, programs, and practices. The participants who responded to the survey ( n = 206) included principals and assistant principals from Washington ( n = 45) and Texas ( n = 77), as well as current students, enrolled in a principal preparation program from Texas ( n = 84) who had some level of administration experience. Table 1 shows the characteristics by state of the participants in the study.

Participant Characteristics by State
Characteristics Washington n(%) Texas n(%)
Job Title
Principal 26(13%) 75(36%)
Assistant Principal 19(9%) 2(1%)
Graduate Student 0(0%) 84(41%)
Gender
Male 32(16%) 51(25%)
Female 13(6%) 110(53%)
Ethnicity
HispanicLatino 0(0%) 28(14%)
WhiteCaucasion 38(18%) 125(61%)
BlackAfrican American 0(0%) 7(3%)
Native HawaiianPacific Islander 1(1%) 0(0%)
Asian 3(2%) 1(1%)
2 races 3(2%) 0(0%)
Ethics Course in Prep Program
Yes 11(5%) 65(32%)
No 34(17%) 96(47%)
(19,1) (19,2) (19,3)

Note . Percentages are based upon total respondents.

Materials and procedures

Instrument. The survey was developed by the researchers and based upon various models of ethical decision-making and practices (Rebore, 2001; Shapiro&Gross, 2008). It consisted of a demographic section, 48 statements that participants would rate their level of agreement or disagreement on a five point Likert-scale (0=Neutral, 1= Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3= Agree, 4= Strongly Agree), and three open-ended questions. The initial survey instrument was piloted on 18 doctoral students in educational leadership who had experience as a school principal. Minimal changes were made to language and organization to clarify directions and/or items.

Fifteen of the items in the survey dealt with the principal’s development and evaluation of school policies, programs, and practices addressing issues related to social justice, equity, confidentiality, acceptance, and respect between students and faculty. Principal component analysis (PCA; Jackson, 1991) was used to assure that the fifteen items maintained the three constructs for analysis: Development and evaluation of ethical school polices , development and evaluation of ethical school programs , and development and evaluation of school practices . The average component loading for the policy questions was .92 and explained 85.94% of the variance. The average component loading for the program questions was .92 and explained 83.32% of the variance. Finally, the average component loading for the practices questions was .91 and explained 83.24 % of the variance.

Procedures. Participants were solicited for the current study through list serves, personal and school e-mail, and through electronic communication embedded in an online educational leadership course. Participants were provided a web address to the survey-hosting site (Surveymonkey.com), where instructions for the survey and estimated time of completion were included. Participants were not allowed to progress through the various sections of the survey unless all questions were answered. This restriction was intended to diminish the number of incomplete surveys.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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