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Prior studies have identified several other factors or barriers that inhibit eligible individuals from becoming school leaders, including stress of the job, long hours required at work, low pay or insufficient compensation, accountability mandates, disrespect from students, and difficulties with parents and other facets of society (e.g., DiPaola&Tschannen-Moran, 2003; ERS, 2000). In addition, Harris, Arnold, Lowery and Crocker (2000) found that increased paperwork and threats of litigation were also significant barriers.

Highly qualified teachers with an array of classroom and out-of-classroom experiences are the foundation for developing successful principals. To examine the interest of highly qualified teachers in becoming school principals, Hancock, Black and Bird (2006) used exploratory factor analysis and identified three underlying constructs or factors among 17 potential inhibitors that kept teachers from becoming school administrators: “(a) Insufficient Gain and /or Personal Benefits; (b) Personal Needs/Issues; and (c) Increased Risk” (p. 94). The specific inhibitors related to the first factor insufficient gain and/or personal benefit include the “salary differential too small, no tenure and lack of security, increased commitments, paperwork/bureaucracy” and “lack of autonomy”; the inhibitors related to the second factor personal needs/ issues include the “desire to relocate, concern for personal safety” and being “discouraged by family and friends”; the third factor increased risk includes inhibitors such as the “pressures from standardized tests, potential litigation, longer year, isolation/alienation from staff” and “discipline problems” (Hancock et al., 2006, p. 95).

The degree of school administrator shortage is varied depending on the locations and characteristics of schools. Rural schools, compared to urban ones, have smaller pools of principal applicants (Pijanowski, Hewitt&Brady, 2009). However, urban and academically low-performing schools are more likely to be lead by principals who have fewer years of leadership experience and who graduated from less competitive undergraduate colleges. Similar findings have been revealed in a more recent study of the distribution of principals across schools by Loeb, Kalogridge and Horng (2010). The authors concluded that “schools serving many low-income, non-White, and low achieving students have principals who have less experience and less education and who attended less selective colleges” (Loeb et al., 2010, p. 205).



In all, 243 graduating students from one of the largest university Administrative Services Credential Programs in California participated in this study. All participants were finishing their last semester of the program. Seventy percent of them were female; 69 percent were sub-administrators; and 61 percent were nonwhite. The majority of the participants (71%) were between 26 and 41 years of age, and the mean of years of teaching experience was 10.

Measures and statistical analyses

All participants completed a survey developed by the authors, which was based on the one used by Adams (1999), to measure participants’ perceived barriers to pursuing school administrative positions. (see Appendix for a brief description and sample items). Participants were asked to indicate the reasons if they were not planning to apply for an administrative position after graduating from the program. They were also asked to provide their demographic information on the survey, such as race/ethnicity and years of teaching experience.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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