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Prior studies have identified several other factors or barriers that inhibit eligible individuals from becoming school leaders, including stress of the job, long hours required at work, low pay or insufficient compensation, accountability mandates, disrespect from students, and difficulties with parents and other facets of society (e.g., DiPaola&Tschannen-Moran, 2003; ERS, 2000). In addition, Harris, Arnold, Lowery and Crocker (2000) found that increased paperwork and threats of litigation were also significant barriers.

Highly qualified teachers with an array of classroom and out-of-classroom experiences are the foundation for developing successful principals. To examine the interest of highly qualified teachers in becoming school principals, Hancock, Black and Bird (2006) used exploratory factor analysis and identified three underlying constructs or factors among 17 potential inhibitors that kept teachers from becoming school administrators: “(a) Insufficient Gain and /or Personal Benefits; (b) Personal Needs/Issues; and (c) Increased Risk” (p. 94). The specific inhibitors related to the first factor insufficient gain and/or personal benefit include the “salary differential too small, no tenure and lack of security, increased commitments, paperwork/bureaucracy” and “lack of autonomy”; the inhibitors related to the second factor personal needs/ issues include the “desire to relocate, concern for personal safety” and being “discouraged by family and friends”; the third factor increased risk includes inhibitors such as the “pressures from standardized tests, potential litigation, longer year, isolation/alienation from staff” and “discipline problems” (Hancock et al., 2006, p. 95).

The degree of school administrator shortage is varied depending on the locations and characteristics of schools. Rural schools, compared to urban ones, have smaller pools of principal applicants (Pijanowski, Hewitt&Brady, 2009). However, urban and academically low-performing schools are more likely to be lead by principals who have fewer years of leadership experience and who graduated from less competitive undergraduate colleges. Similar findings have been revealed in a more recent study of the distribution of principals across schools by Loeb, Kalogridge and Horng (2010). The authors concluded that “schools serving many low-income, non-White, and low achieving students have principals who have less experience and less education and who attended less selective colleges” (Loeb et al., 2010, p. 205).



In all, 243 graduating students from one of the largest university Administrative Services Credential Programs in California participated in this study. All participants were finishing their last semester of the program. Seventy percent of them were female; 69 percent were sub-administrators; and 61 percent were nonwhite. The majority of the participants (71%) were between 26 and 41 years of age, and the mean of years of teaching experience was 10.

Measures and statistical analyses

All participants completed a survey developed by the authors, which was based on the one used by Adams (1999), to measure participants’ perceived barriers to pursuing school administrative positions. (see Appendix for a brief description and sample items). Participants were asked to indicate the reasons if they were not planning to apply for an administrative position after graduating from the program. They were also asked to provide their demographic information on the survey, such as race/ethnicity and years of teaching experience.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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