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ACIDS are molecular compounds which ionize (turn into ions) in water. The cation that is formed is always H + size 12{H rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} . Therefore, in the formulas for simple acids, H is always the first element listed. Some acids are strong electrolytes and some acids are weak electrolytes. There are no acids which are nonelectrolytes because by definition an acid is a H + size 12{H rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} donor.

BASES can be molecular compounds or ionic compounds. Some bases are soluble and some are not. The soluble bases ionize or dissociate into ions in water, and the anion formed is always OH size 12{"OH" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} . The ionic bases have hydroxide ( OH size 12{"OH" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ) as the anion. If they are soluble, the ions simply separate (dissociate) in the water. All of the ionic bases which are soluble are strong electrolytes. 

SALTS are ionic compounds which are not acids or bases. In other words, the cation is not hydrogen and the anion is not hydroxide. Some salts are soluble in water and some are not. All of the salts which are soluble are relatively strong electrolytes.

NONELECTROLYTES are compounds which dissolve in water but do not ionize or dissociate into ions. These would be molecular compounds other than the acids or bases already discussed.

Experimental procedure

Caution:Acids and bases are corrosive and can cause burns.

Part i. predicting bond type through electronegativity differences.

Using the electronegativity table provided in the lab manual, predict the type of bond that each of the following compounds will have by the following process:

  • Find the electronegativity for each element or ion in compound using electronegativity table provided.
  • Subtract the electronegativites (using absolute value).
  • If values are between:

4.0-1.7---Ionic bond-50-100% ionic

1.7-0.3---Polar Covalent bond-5-50% ionic

0.3-0.0---Non-Polar Covalent-0-5% ionic

Determine the type of bonding in the following compounds: KCl, CO, CaBr 2 size 12{"CaBr" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} , SiH 4 size 12{"SiH" rSub { size 8{4} } } {} , MgS.

Part ii. weak and strong electrolytes


  • tap water
  • 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, HCl
  • 0.1 M acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2 size 12{"HC" rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{2} } } {}
  • 0.1 M sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } "SO" rSub { size 8{4} } } {}
  • 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, NaOH
  • 0.1 M ammonia, NH 3 size 12{"NH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {}
  • 0.1 M sodium acetate, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 size 12{"NaC" rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{2} } } {}
  • 0.1 M sodium chloride, NaCl
  • 0.1 M ammonium acetate, NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 size 12{"NH" rSub { size 8{4} } C rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{2} } } {}
  • 0.1 M ammonium chloride, NH 4 Cl size 12{"NH" rSub { size 8{4} } "Cl"} {}
  • methanol, CH 3 OH size 12{"CH" rSub { size 8{3} } "OH"} {}
  • ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH size 12{C rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{5} } "OH"} {}
  • sucrose solution, C 12 H 22 O 11 size 12{C rSub { size 8{"12"} } H rSub { size 8{"22"} } O rSub { size 8{"11"} } } {}

In today’s lab, you will be using a MicroLab conductivity probe to determine how well electrons flow through a given solution. First, you will need to calibrate the probe with a non-electrolyte (distilled water) and a very strong electrolyte. To quantify how well a solution conducts, we will assign numerical values to the conductance probe. A non-conducting solution will have a conductance value of 0, a poor conducting solution will have a reading of 0 to 1,000, and good conductors will have readings of 3,000 up.

Instructions for microlab conductivity experiment

Open the MicroLab Program by clicking on the Shortcut to MicroLab.exe tab on the desktop.

On the“Choose an Experiment Type”Tab, enter a name for the experiment, and then double click on the MicroLab Experiment icon

Click“Add Sensor”, Choose sensor = Conductivity Probe

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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