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ACIDS are molecular compounds which ionize (turn into ions) in water. The cation that is formed is always H + size 12{H rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} . Therefore, in the formulas for simple acids, H is always the first element listed. Some acids are strong electrolytes and some acids are weak electrolytes. There are no acids which are nonelectrolytes because by definition an acid is a H + size 12{H rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} donor.

BASES can be molecular compounds or ionic compounds. Some bases are soluble and some are not. The soluble bases ionize or dissociate into ions in water, and the anion formed is always OH size 12{"OH" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} . The ionic bases have hydroxide ( OH size 12{"OH" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ) as the anion. If they are soluble, the ions simply separate (dissociate) in the water. All of the ionic bases which are soluble are strong electrolytes. 

SALTS are ionic compounds which are not acids or bases. In other words, the cation is not hydrogen and the anion is not hydroxide. Some salts are soluble in water and some are not. All of the salts which are soluble are relatively strong electrolytes.

NONELECTROLYTES are compounds which dissolve in water but do not ionize or dissociate into ions. These would be molecular compounds other than the acids or bases already discussed.

Experimental procedure

Caution:Acids and bases are corrosive and can cause burns.

Part i. predicting bond type through electronegativity differences.

Using the electronegativity table provided in the lab manual, predict the type of bond that each of the following compounds will have by the following process:

  • Find the electronegativity for each element or ion in compound using electronegativity table provided.
  • Subtract the electronegativites (using absolute value).
  • If values are between:

4.0-1.7---Ionic bond-50-100% ionic

1.7-0.3---Polar Covalent bond-5-50% ionic

0.3-0.0---Non-Polar Covalent-0-5% ionic

Determine the type of bonding in the following compounds: KCl, CO, CaBr 2 size 12{"CaBr" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} , SiH 4 size 12{"SiH" rSub { size 8{4} } } {} , MgS.

Part ii. weak and strong electrolytes

Chemicals

  • tap water
  • 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, HCl
  • 0.1 M acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2 size 12{"HC" rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{2} } } {}
  • 0.1 M sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } "SO" rSub { size 8{4} } } {}
  • 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, NaOH
  • 0.1 M ammonia, NH 3 size 12{"NH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {}
  • 0.1 M sodium acetate, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 size 12{"NaC" rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{2} } } {}
  • 0.1 M sodium chloride, NaCl
  • 0.1 M ammonium acetate, NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 size 12{"NH" rSub { size 8{4} } C rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{2} } } {}
  • 0.1 M ammonium chloride, NH 4 Cl size 12{"NH" rSub { size 8{4} } "Cl"} {}
  • methanol, CH 3 OH size 12{"CH" rSub { size 8{3} } "OH"} {}
  • ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH size 12{C rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{5} } "OH"} {}
  • sucrose solution, C 12 H 22 O 11 size 12{C rSub { size 8{"12"} } H rSub { size 8{"22"} } O rSub { size 8{"11"} } } {}

In today’s lab, you will be using a MicroLab conductivity probe to determine how well electrons flow through a given solution. First, you will need to calibrate the probe with a non-electrolyte (distilled water) and a very strong electrolyte. To quantify how well a solution conducts, we will assign numerical values to the conductance probe. A non-conducting solution will have a conductance value of 0, a poor conducting solution will have a reading of 0 to 1,000, and good conductors will have readings of 3,000 up.

Instructions for microlab conductivity experiment

Open the MicroLab Program by clicking on the Shortcut to MicroLab.exe tab on the desktop.

On the“Choose an Experiment Type”Tab, enter a name for the experiment, and then double click on the MicroLab Experiment icon

Click“Add Sensor”, Choose sensor = Conductivity Probe

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
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Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
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_½+⅔-¾
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The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
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Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
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combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
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find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
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Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
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find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
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use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
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4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
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what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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