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Part 3. invisible ink

Invisible ink has been used to conceal secret messages for a long time. Many different liquids can be used as invisible inks such as lemon juice, milk, vinegar or a solution of phenolphthalein.

Part 4. breathalyzer

To determine whether a driver is driving under the influence of alcohol, law enforcement officers perform a Breathalyzer test to measure the blood alcohol content of the bloodstream. In the breath analyzer test, a breath sample is passed through a solution containing acidified potassium dichromate ( K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) size 12{ \( K rSub { size 8{2} } ital "Cr" rSub { size 8{2} } O rSub { size 8{7} } \) } {} , which is bright yellow. Potassium dichromate, a strong oxidizing agent, oxidizes ethyl alcohol to acetic acid (vinegar). The chromium is consequently reduced from the VI to the III oxidation state, which is green. The unbalanced equation for this reaction is

Cr 2 O 7 2 + H + + C 2 H 5 OH Cr 3 + + CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O size 12{ ital "Cr" rSub { size 8{2} } O rSub { size 8{7} } rSup { size 8{2 - {}} } +H rSup { size 8{+{}} } +C rSub { size 8{2} } H rSub { size 8{5} } ital "OH" rightarrow ital "Cr" rSup { size 8{3+{}} } + ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "CO" rSub { size 8{2} } H+H rSub { size 8{2} } O} {}


The amount of alcohol in a breath analyzer sample is therefore proportional to the amount of potassium dichromate that is used up and also therefore to the loss of yellow color.

The Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) may then be calculated from the equation

BAC = 0.8 A/WR

Where W is a body weight of the individual being tested, A is the amount of alcohol in the body (in mL) and R is a“Widmark R Factor”, approximately 0.68 for men and 0.55 for women.In most states, a BAC of 0.1 percent is sufficient to be convicted for driving under the influence of alcohol; in some states the threshold BAC is even lower.

Part 5: Blood Stain Analysis Using Chemiluminescence

Investigators often find bloodstains during their examination of a crime scene. They also find stains that could be similar substance, something other then blood, such as red paint. How would you test a stain to see if it is blood? Human blood contains a pigment called hemoglobin, which is used to transport oxygen through our body. This pigment is used by number of tests to identify the presence of blood. One most common test used by investigators that reveals the presence of blood is the Luminol Test. In this test the bloodstain can be made to glow with a blue light due to chemiluminescent reaction of the luminol reagent with the iron (Fe) in the hemoglobin. Chemiluminescence is the reversed case of photoreaction: by a chemical reaction, an excited particle is formed, which looses its energy by producing a light quantum of light. The most important characteristic is that the light is emitted in cold. In other words, chemiluminescence happens when a molecule capable of fluorescing is raised to an excited level during a chemical reaction. Upon its return to the ground state, energy in the form of light is emitted. Luminol is one of the most outstanding molecules that emit appreciable amounts of light.

Experimental Procedure

Part 1a: Latent Fingerprint Development using Iodine vapors

Caution! Iodine vapors are poisonous and should not be inhaled. Keep the jar with iodine in the fume hood at all times.

1. Press you finger onto a piece of filter paper.

2. Using tweezers, place the filter paper into a jar with iodine and recap it.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry spring. OpenStax CNX. Mar 10, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10512/1.9
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