<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
In this mini-project you will learn about musical intervals, and discover the reason behind the choice of frequencies for the tuning system called "equal temperament."
This module refers to LabVIEW, a software development environment that features a graphical programming language. Please see the LabVIEW QuickStart Guide module for tutorials and documentation that will help you:
•Apply LabVIEW to Audio Signal Processing
•Get started with LabVIEW
•Obtain a fully-functional evaluation edition of LabVIEW


In this mini-project you will learn about musical intervals, and also discover the reason behind the choice of frequencies for the equal-tempered musical scale.

Spend some time familiarizing yourself with the piano keyboard below. Enter the pitch (letter) and its octave number to display the corresponding frequency. For example, middle C is C4, and C2 is two octaves below middle C. The frequency 440 Hz is an international standard frequency called concert A , and is denoted A4. Concert A is exactly 440 cycles per second, by definition.

The black keys are called sharps and are signified by the hash symbol # . For example, G#1 indicates the sharp of G1, and is located to the right of G1.

Try the following exercises to make sure that you can properly interpret the keyboard:

What is the frequency of the leftmost black key?

29.14 Hz

What is the name and frequency of the white key to the immediate left of C7?

B6, 1976 Hz

What is the name of the key that has a frequency of 370.0 Hz?



Part 1

One aspect of the design of any scale is to allow a melody to be transposed to different keys (e.g., made higher or lower in pitch) while still sounding "the same." For example, you can sing the song "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star" using many different starting pitches (or frequencies), but everyone can recognize that the melody is the same.

Download and run tone_player.vi , a that VI accepts a vector of frequencies (in Hz) and plays them as a sequence of notes, each with a duration that you can adjust. Listen to the five-note sequence given by the frequencies 400, 450, 500, 533, and 600 Hz (it should sound like the first five notes of "Do-Re-Mi").

Now, transpose this melody to a lower initial pitch by subtracting a constant 200 Hz from each pitch; write the frequencies on your mini-project worksheet :

Modify tone_player.vi by inserting an additional front-panel control so that you can add a constant offset to the array of frequencies. Be sure that you keep the "Actual Frequencies" indicator so that you always know to which frequencies you are listening.

Set the offset to -200Hz, and listen to the transposed melody. How does the transposed version compare to the original? Does it sound like the same melody? Enter your response on the worksheet:

Transpose the original melody to a higher initial pitch by adding 200 Hz to each pitch; write the frequencies on your worksheet:

Set the offset to 200Hz, and listen to the transposed melody. How does the transposed version compare to the original? How does it compare to the version that was transposed to a lower frequency? Enter your response on the worksheet:

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Musical signal processing with labview -- introduction to audio and musical signals. OpenStax CNX. Nov 07, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10481/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Musical signal processing with labview -- introduction to audio and musical signals' conversation and receive update notifications?