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## Introduction

Geometry (Greek: geo = earth, metria = measure) arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. It was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers. In modern times, geometric concepts have become very complex and abstract and are barely recognizable as the descendants of early geometry. Geometry is often split into Euclidean geometry and analytical geometry. Euclidean geometry is covered in this chapter.

## Research project : history of geometry

Work in pairs or groups and investigate the history of the foundation of geometry. Describe the various stages of development and how the following cultures used geometry to improve their lives. This list should serve as a guideline and provide the minimum requirement, there are many other people who contributed to the foundation of geometry.

1. Ancient Indian geometry (c. 3000 - 500 B.C.)
1. Harappan geometry
2. Vedic geometry
2. Classical Greek geometry (c. 600 - 300 B.C.)
1. Thales and Pythagoras
2. Plato
3. Hellenistic geometry (c. 300 B.C - 500 C.E.)
1. Euclid
2. Archimedes

In this section we will look at the properties of some special quadrilaterals. We will then use these properties to solve geometrical problems. It should be noted that although all the properties of a figure are given, we only need one unique property of the quadrilateral to prove that it is that quadrilateral. For example, if we have a quadrilateral with two pairs of opposite sides parallel, then that quadrilateral is a parallelogram. We can then prove the other properties of the quadrilateral using what we have learnt about parallel lines and triangles.

## Trapezium

A trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel opposite sides. It may also be called a trapezoid . A special type of trapezium is the isosceles trapezium , where one pair of opposite sides is parallel, the other pair of sides is equal in length and the angles at the ends of each parallel side are equal. An isosceles trapezium has one line of symmetry and its diagonals are equal in length.

Note: The term trapezoid is predominantly used in North America and refers to what we call a trapezium. Rather confusingly, they use the term 'trapezium' to refer to a general irregular quadrilateral, that is a quadrilateral with no parallel sides!

## Parallelogram

A trapezium with both sets of opposite sides parallel is called a parallelogram . A summary of the properties of a parallelogram is:

• Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel.
• Both pairs of opposite sides are equal in length.
• Both pairs of opposite angles are equal.
• Both diagonals bisect each other (i.e. they cut each other in half).

## Rectangle

A rectangle is a parallelogram that has all four angles equal to ${90}^{\circ }$ . A summary of the properties of a rectangle is:

• Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel.
• Both pairs of opposite sides are of equal length.
• Both diagonals bisect each other.
• Diagonals are equal in length.
• All angles at the corners are right angles.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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