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Geometry (Greek: geo = earth, metria = measure) arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. It was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers. In modern times, geometric concepts have become very complex and abstract and are barely recognizable as the descendants of early geometry. Geometry is often split into Euclidean geometry and analytical geometry. Euclidean geometry is covered in this chapter.

Research project : history of geometry

Work in pairs or groups and investigate the history of the foundation of geometry. Describe the various stages of development and how the following cultures used geometry to improve their lives. This list should serve as a guideline and provide the minimum requirement, there are many other people who contributed to the foundation of geometry.

  1. Ancient Indian geometry (c. 3000 - 500 B.C.)
    1. Harappan geometry
    2. Vedic geometry
  2. Classical Greek geometry (c. 600 - 300 B.C.)
    1. Thales and Pythagoras
    2. Plato
  3. Hellenistic geometry (c. 300 B.C - 500 C.E.)
    1. Euclid
    2. Archimedes


In this section we will look at the properties of some special quadrilaterals. We will then use these properties to solve geometrical problems. It should be noted that although all the properties of a figure are given, we only need one unique property of the quadrilateral to prove that it is that quadrilateral. For example, if we have a quadrilateral with two pairs of opposite sides parallel, then that quadrilateral is a parallelogram. We can then prove the other properties of the quadrilateral using what we have learnt about parallel lines and triangles.


A trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel opposite sides. It may also be called a trapezoid . A special type of trapezium is the isosceles trapezium , where one pair of opposite sides is parallel, the other pair of sides is equal in length and the angles at the ends of each parallel side are equal. An isosceles trapezium has one line of symmetry and its diagonals are equal in length.

Note: The term trapezoid is predominantly used in North America and refers to what we call a trapezium. Rather confusingly, they use the term 'trapezium' to refer to a general irregular quadrilateral, that is a quadrilateral with no parallel sides!

Examples of trapeziums.


A trapezium with both sets of opposite sides parallel is called a parallelogram . A summary of the properties of a parallelogram is:

  • Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel.
  • Both pairs of opposite sides are equal in length.
  • Both pairs of opposite angles are equal.
  • Both diagonals bisect each other (i.e. they cut each other in half).
An example of a parallelogram.


A rectangle is a parallelogram that has all four angles equal to 90 . A summary of the properties of a rectangle is:

  • Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel.
  • Both pairs of opposite sides are of equal length.
  • Both diagonals bisect each other.
  • Diagonals are equal in length.
  • All angles at the corners are right angles.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 maths [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11306/1.4
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