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The elements

The Group 16 elements have a particular name chalcogenes. [link] lists the derivation of the names of the halogens.

Derivation of the names of each of the Group 16(VI) elements.
Element Symbol Name
Oxygen O Greek oxys ( sharp , from the taste of acids) and genēs (producer)
Sulfur (sulphur) S From the Latin sulphurium
Selenium Se Greek selene meaning Moon
Tellurium Te Latin tellus meaning earth
Polonium Po Named after Poland, Latin Polonia
In Latin, the word is variously written sulpur , sulphur , and sulfur . It is an original Latin name and not a classical Greek loan, so the ph variant does not denote the Greek letter φ. Sulfur in Greek is thion , whence comes the prefix thio - to donate a sulfur derivative, e.g., a thioketone, R 2 C=S. The simplification of the Latin words p or ph to an f appears to have taken place towards the end of the classical period. The element has traditionally been spelled sulphur in the United Kingdom, India, Malaysia, South Africa, Australia, Ireland, and Canada, but sulfur in the United States. IUPAC adopted the spelling “sulfur” in 1990, as did the Royal Society of Chemistry Nomenclature Committee in 1992.



The 2 nd century BC Greek writer, Philo of Byzantium, observed that inverting a jar over a burning candle and surrounding the jar’s neck with water resulted in some water rising into the neck. He incorrectly ascribed this to the idea that part of the air in the vessel were converted into the element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Much later Leonardo da Vinci ( [link] ) suggested that this effect was actually due to a portion of air being consumed during combustion.

Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452 - 1519).

By the late 17 th century, Robert Boyle ( [link] ) showed that air is necessary for combustion. His work was expanded by English chemist John Mayow ( [link] ) by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus or just nitroaereus .

British natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691).
English chemist, physician, and physiologist John Mayow FRS (1641–1679).

The reactive nature of nitroaereus was implied by Mayow from his observation that antimony (Sb) increased in weight when heated in air. He also suggested that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body; both concepts that were proven to be correct.

Robert Hooke ( [link] ), Ole Borch ( [link] ), Mikhail Lomonosov (id1168366758158), and Pierre Bayen ( [link] ) all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17 th and the 18 th century but none of them recognized it as an element, probably since the prevalence at that time of the phlogiston, and their attempts to fit their experimental observations to that theory.

Portrait of English natural philosopher, architect Robert Hooke FRS (1635 - 1703).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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