# 0.8 Organic reactions  (Page 2/3)

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## Experimental procedure

CAUTION WEAR EYE PROTECTION!

CAUTION - Concentrated sulfuric acid will burn and stain the skin as well as damage clothing. In case of skin or clothing contact, wash the area immediately with large amounts of water.

## Synthesis of esters

• Place approximately 2 g (or 2 mL if the substance is a liquid) of the organic acid and 2 mL of the alcohol in a large test tube.
• Add 5 - 7 drops of concentrated (18 M) sulfuric acid, mix the solution well with a glass stirring rod and then place the test tube in a hot water bath (largest beaker in your drawer) (~ 80°C) for 5 - 10 minutes.
• Remove the test tube from the hot water bath and cautiously pour the mixture into about 15 mL of saturated sodium bicarbonate contained in a small beaker. The sodium bicarbonate will destroy any unreacted acid.
• Observe the aroma produced from each of the following esterification reactions. Write the structure of the esters produced, and the balanced equations for the esterification and the acid/sodium bicarbonate reactions:

Complete the following reactions using the procedure above and record your observations.

(1) ${C}_{7}{H}_{6}{O}_{3}+{\text{CH}}_{3}\text{OH}\to$

salicylic acid + methyl alcohol

(2) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{CH}{}_{2}\text{}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{OH}+{\text{CH}}_{3}\text{COOH}\to$

1 - octanol + glacial acetic acid

(3) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{CH}{}_{2}\text{}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{OH}+{\text{CH}}_{3}\text{COOH}\to$

amyl alcohol + glacial acetic acid

(4) ${C}_{2}H{}_{5}\text{}\text{OH}+{\text{CH}}_{3}\text{COOH}\to$

ethanol + acetic acid

## Oxidation of an alcohol with acidified potassium dichromate(vi) solution

• Add 10 drops of dilute sulfuric acid (6M) and 5 drops of potassium dichromate(VI) solution (0.01M) to 5 drops of ethanol. The oxidising agent is added slowly to the alcohol so that the temperature is kept below that of the alcohol and above that of the carbonyl compound. (Carbonyl compounds are more volatile than the corresponding alcohols). Usually the alcohol is in excess of the oxidant and the aldehyde is distilled off to avoid further oxidation.
• Note the color and smell cautiously (Royal Wave).
• Warm the mixture and smell cautiously (Royal Wave).
• Repeat the experiment using first methanol and then propan-2-ol in place of ethanol.

Describe what happens and explain the color changes.

What conditions and techniques would favour the oxidation of ethanol to

a. ethanal rather than ethanoic acid.

b. ethanoic acid rather than ethanal?

## Oxidation of an alcohol with acidified potassium permanganate (vii) solution

• Add 10 drops of dilute sulfuric acid and 5 drops of potassium permanganate (VII) solution (0.01M) to 5 drops of ethanol. Note the color and smell cautiously.
• Warm the mixture and smell cautiously (Royal Wave).
• Repeat the experiment using first methanol and then propan-2-ol in place of ethanol.
• Take the pH of your final mixture using Universal indicator paper

Describe what happens and explain the color changes.

What is your final product?

## Saponification of a vegetable oil

CAUTION - Sodium hydroxide is a very caustic material that can cause severe skin burns. Eye burns caused by sodium hydroxide are progressive: what at first appears to be a minor irritation can develop into a severe injury unless the chemical is completely flushed from the eye. If sodium hydroxide comes in contact with the eye, flush the eye with running water continuously for at least 20 minutes. Notify your TA immediately. If sodium hydroxide is spilled on some other parts of the body, flush the affected area with running water continuously for at least 2-3 minutes. Notify your TA immediately.

#### Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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