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Summarizes the implementation of matrix completion using Chis paper

Objective of matrix completion

An equation for matrix completion

Equation 1 : Objective of the matrix completion

The objective of matrix completion is to minimize Equation 1 stated above. X is the matrix of actual data, and Z is our prediction model. In real world situations, such as the Netflix Problem, the actual data X is only partially filled. Thus, the term P𝝮c(X) represents the observed indices of the data matrix X, and the following term represents the observed indices of our model matrix Z. The first half of Equation 1, the Frobenius norm of the differences between the observed X and the model Z, would therefore signify how closely the model resembles the actual data.

The second half of Equation 1, the nuclear norm of the model matrix Z, is called the regularization term, which is used here to represent the rank of the model, which is an appropriate indicator of the simplicity of the model. Simple matrices would have smaller quantities and magnitudes of singular values.

However, as the equation shows, there exists a “tradeoff between the [simplicity] (rank) of the model and how well the model matches the data.” If the model is too simple, it is often not accurate. If the model is perfectly accurate, it is often not simple.

Overview of majorization minimization algorithm

The first half of Equation 1 still provides a challenge because it only uses terms that are observed. The question that can be asked at this point would be how can we convert the projection matrix, P𝝮c(X), into a fully completed matrix and still provide the same result for the model Z?

Here we introduce the majorization-minimization (MM) algorithm. The following explanation will give an overview of the algorithm applied to f(x).

The first step of the algorithm is majorizing the function f(x). Majorizing means finding a good surrogate of the actual function f(x) anchored at a point xn. This means that the surrogate function g(x) must have the same value with f(x) at xn. g(x) must always be greater than f(x) at any point of x. In other words, g(x) must dominate f(x).

After we find the majorization function g(x), the second step of the algorithm is minimization, which means to find the lowest value of g(x). x at the lowest value of g(x) would be our next anchor for the majorization of the next iteration of MM algorithm.

In the next part, we will look at how we implement the MM algorithm into the matrix completion problem.

Majorization for matrix completion problem

An equation for matrix completion

Using the quadratic majorization of the matrix, we can therefore simplify the original problem with the surrogate matrix Y written below:

An equation for matrix completion

Minimization for matrix completion problem (soft threshold operator and 4 steps)

An equation for matrix completion

Given the majorization matrix Y, we now implement the minimization using the 4 steps shown above, which include building a Y matrix, singular value decomposition of Y, soft thresholding of the ranks, and building the next model matrix Z. Soft thresholding, is essentially the solution to the minimization of the majorization of Equation 1. The soft thresholding process is shown below:

An equation for matrix completion

The detailed proof of achieving minimization through the soft thresholding process can be found on the articles referenced at the end of the report. (“Getting to the Bottom of Matrix Completion”) The relevant code we wrote is shown below:

An equation for matrix completion

K-fold cross validation

We used the 10-fold cross validation process to find the optimal regularization term lambda ƛ. The process includes randomly dividing the observed indices into 10 folds. Then, we remove each fold and use the rest of the indices to find the model Z. For each fold, therefore, we find the mean squared difference of the observed indices between data X and model Z. We then average the results of each 10 fold to get a comprehensive idea of how successful the lambda was. We iterate this process for thousands of lambdas to find the optimal value. The matlab code we wrote is shown below:

Code for matrix completion Code for matrix completion

Questions & Answers

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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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s. Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Breaking matrix completion: a stress test. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11934/1.1
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