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This module is from Elementary Algebra by Denny Burzynski and Wade Ellis, Jr. Factoring is an essential skill for success in algebra and higher level mathematics courses. Therefore, we have taken great care in developing the student's understanding of the factorization process. The technique is consistently illustrated by displaying an empty set of parentheses and describing the thought process used to discover the terms that are to be placed inside the parentheses.The factoring scheme for special products is presented with both verbal and symbolic descriptions, since not all students can interpret symbolic descriptions alone. Two techniques, the standard "trial and error" method, and the "collect and discard" method (a method similar to the "ac" method), are presented for factoring trinomials with leading coefficients different from 1. Objectives of this module: be reminded of products of polynomials, be able to determine a second factor of a polynomial given a first factor.

Overview

  • Products of Polynomials
  • Factoring

Products of polynomials

Previously, we studied multiplication of polynomials (Section [link] ). We were given factors and asked to find their product , as shown below.

Given the factors 4and 8, find the product. 4 8 = 32 . The product is 32.

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Given the factors 6 x 2 and 2 x 7 , find the product.

6 x 2 ( 2 x 7 ) 12 x 3 42 x 2

The product is 12 x 3 42 x 2 .

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Given the factors x 2 y and 3 x + y , find the product.

( x 2 y ) ( 3 x + y ) = 3 x 2 + x y 6 x y 2 y 2 = 3 x 2 5 x y 2 y 2

The product is 3 x 2 5 x y 2 y 2 .

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Given the factors a 8 and a 8 , find the product.

( a + 8 ) 2 = a 2 + 16 a + 64

The product is a 2 + 16 a + 64 .

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Factoring

Now, let’s reverse the situation. We will be given the product, and we will try to find the factors. This process, which is the reverse of multiplication, is called factoring .

Factoring

Factoring is the process of determining the factors of a given product.

Sample set a

The number 24 is the product, and one factor is 6. What is the other factor?

We’re looking for a number ( ) such that 6 ( ) = 24 . We know from experience that ( ) = 4 . As problems become progressively more complex, our experience may not give us the solution directly. We need a method for finding factors. To develop this method we can use the relatively simple problem 6 ( ) = 24 as a guide.
To find the number ( ) , we would divide 24 by 6.

24 6 = 4

The other factor is 4.

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The product is 18 x 3 y 4 z 2 and one factor is 9 x y 2 z . What is the other factor?

We know that since 9 x y 2 z is a factor of 18 x 3 y 4 z 2 , there must be some quantity ( ) such that 9 x y 2 z ( ) = 18 x 3 y 4 z 2 . Dividing 18 x 3 y 4 z 2 by 9 x y 2 z , we get

18 x 3 y 4 z 2 9 x y 2 z = 2 x 2 y 2 z

Thus, the other factor is 2 x 2 y 2 z .

Checking will convince us that 2 x 2 y 2 z is indeed the proper factor.

( 2 x 2 y 2 z ) ( 9 x y 2 z ) = 18 x 2 + 1 y 2 + 2 z 1 + 1 = 18 x 3 y 4 z 2

We should try to find the quotient mentally and avoid actually writing the division problem.

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The product is 21 a 5 b n and 3 a b 4 is a factor. Find the other factor.

Mentally dividing 21 a 5 b n by 3 a b 4 , we get

21 a 5 b n 3 a b 4 = 7 a 5 1 b n 4 = 7 a 4 b n 4

Thus, the other factor is 7 a 4 b n 4 .

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Practice set a

The product is 84 and one factor is 6. What is the other factor?

14

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The product is 14 x 3 y 2 z 5 and one factor is 7 x y z . What is the other factor?

2 x 2 y z 4

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Exercises

In the following problems, the first quantity represents the product and the second quantity represents a factor of that product. Find the other factor.

10 a , 5

2 a

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21 b , 7 b

3

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20 x 3 , 4

5 x 3

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8 x 4 , 4 x

2 x 3

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16 y 5 , 2 y

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6 x 2 y , 3 x

2 x y

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9 a 4 b 5 , 9 a 4

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15 x 2 b 4 c 7 , 5 x 2 b c 6

3 b 3 c

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25 a 3 b 2 c , 5 a c

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18 x 2 b 5 , 2 x b 4

9 x b

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22 b 8 c 6 d 3 , 11 b 8 c 4

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60 x 5 b 3 f 9 , 15 x 2 b 2 f 2

4 x 3 b f 7

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39 x 4 y 5 z 11 , 3 x y 3 z 10

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147 a 20 b 6 c 18 d 2 , 21 a 3 b d

7 a 17 b 5 c 18 d

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121 a 6 b 8 c 10 , 11 b 2 c 5

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1 8 x 4 y 3 , 1 2 x y 3

1 4 x 3

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7 x 2 y 3 z 2 , 7 x 2 y 3 z

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5 a 4 b 7 c 3 d 2 , 5 a 4 b 7 c 3 d

d

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14 x 4 y 3 z 7 , 14 x 4 y 3 z 7

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12 a 3 b 2 c 8 , 12 a 3 b 2 c 8

1

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6 ( a + 1 ) 2 ( a + 5 ) , 3 ( a + 1 ) 2

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8 ( x + y ) 3 ( x 2 y ) , 2 ( x 2 y )

4 ( x + y ) 3

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14 ( a 3 ) 6 ( a + 4 ) 2 , 2 ( a 3 ) 2 ( a + 4 )

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26 ( x 5 y ) 10 ( x 3 y ) 12 , 2 ( x 5 y ) 7 ( x 3 y ) 7

13 ( x 5 y ) 3 ( x 3 y ) 5

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34 ( 1 a ) 4 ( 1 + a ) 8 , 17 ( 1 a ) 4 ( 1 + a ) 2

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( x + y ) ( x y ) , x y

( x + y )

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( a + 3 ) ( a 3 ) , a 3

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48 x n + 3 y 2 n 1 , 8 x 3 y n + 5

6 x n y n 6

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0.0024 x 4 n y 3 n + 5 z 2 , 0.03 x 3 n y 5

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Exercises for review

( [link] ) Simplify ( x 4 y 0 z 2 ) 3 .

x 12 z 6

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( [link] ) Simplify { [ ( | 6 | ) ] } .

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( [link] ) Find the product. ( 2 x 4 ) 2 .

4 x 2 16 x + 16

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Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10614/1.3
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