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Economic and management systems

Grade 8

Sustainable growth and development

Module 9

Employing technology

Technological advancement or development, which comprises the use of improved techniques or methods of production, enable workers to deliver additional outputs or improve production using the same resources. Such improvement reduces the cost of producing goods and services. This means that a smaller input per unit is required in terms of human and physical capital.

Technological development is achieved by means of investment in capital equipment and research projects. For this reason, development in the field of technology (and science) will require bigger investments and sacrifices in terms of (reduced) consumption.

Activity 1: technological developments

SELF:

Create a poster showing the following technological improvements:

  • The replacement of people with machines;
  • The course of development from the steam engine to the internal combustion engine to hydroelectric power to atomic power;
  • Developments in the field of telecommunication;
  • Developments in the field of transport.

( Select any of the above. )

These technological developments have resulted in significant changes in the way of life of all people over the past 250 years and have led to an improvement in living standards.

Technological improvements can take two forms:

1. INVENTION , which involves the discovery of new products or new processes; and

2. INNOVATION , which involves practical conversion to new techniques. This can also be seen as the economic application of an INVENTION

Note:

  • INVENTIONS ARE IMPORTANT, BUT THEY REMAIN BRIGHT IDEAS WAITING TO BE IMPLEMENTED IF INNOVATORS DO NOT SHOW THE WAY FOR THEIR IMPLEMENTATIONS.

Activity 2: Invention and Innovation [LO 2.4]

Group:

Do research on:

  • HENRY FORD, who is regarded as the father of the Model T Ford, and
  • RAY KROC, who is regarded as the father of McDonalds.

Decide whether they were inventors or innovators and motivate your decision.

  • Summarize your research:

Although technological developments have played an important role in promoting material prosperity and improving the standard of living, we have to realise that such development in itself is not adequate for sustainable economic growth. Before modern technology can ensure economic growth, the labour force has to develop appropriate skills to be able to operate and maintain the complicated machines that are developed. Training and the acquisition of basic skills therefore form an important part of the successful implementation of technology. To facilitate this, it is imperative that greater investment in formal and informal training should be realised.

References:

  • Gwartney, James D ECONOMICS, Private and Public Choice, Sixth Edition
  • Stroup, Richard L The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, 1992

Assessment

Learning outcomes (LOs)

LO 2

SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of sustainable growth, reconstruction and development, and to reflect critically on related processes

Assessment standards (ASs)

We know this when the learner:

2.1 investigates and describes how the national budget is used to influence growth and redress economic inequalities;

2.2 investigates how the RDP could have been used to stimulate economic growth and restructuring (e.g. capacity building jobs);

2.3 discusses the importance of savings for investments;

2.4 investigates and reports on how technology can improve productivity, economic growth, living standards, etc.

Overview

Assessment standard 2.4:

ACTIVITY 1: TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS

Self:

learners are to make a selection from given examples. They should be encouraged to make free use of appropriate pictures and other representations to illustrate technological developments / improvements.

ACTIVITY 2: INVENTION AND INNOVATION

GROUP:

Let groups do research relating to HENRY FORD and RAY KROC to help them become aware of the extent of the developments related to motor car manufacturing and the fast food industry.

  • HENRY FORD and RAY KROC were innovators.
  • HENRY FORD’s contribution has to do with the development of mass production and

RAY KROC’s innovation led to a change in the eating habits of American people, and of most of the people in the world

Questions & Answers

why should a firm close down when it's unable to pay it's variable cost?
ANDREW Reply
what is oligopolistic competitive market?
ngong
exchange of goods and services between countries is call
Hosea Reply
what is constant opportunity cost
Tiffany Reply
Constant opportunity cost means the value of sacrifice remains constant in every step.
Dipam
Gross Domestic Product GDP
Yusuf Reply
what is g d p
Jayapal Reply
gross daily performance
domingo
How best can a poor country respond to an economic crisis , what does it have to sacrifice.
Bah Reply
they should pay tax as progressive system and should make sacrifice for taxation of their income and land etc
Hamza
how have the nations tries to solve the problem of scarcity in their economies?
Amani Reply
total concentration on to reduce the per unit cost of commodity by technically or whatever
Hamza
explain what will happen to producer of green coconut now that we have to lockdown in the kingdom of tonga
Tuha Reply
the demand for coconut will decrease and supply increases which result in the decrease in the price of coconut and the coconut will be more elastic
Hamza
tonga is producing more long run economic good explain the meaning of the statement and its implication on the tonga economy
Tuha Reply
Demand is the various quantities of goods and services that consumer(s)are willing and able to purchase at a price within a time
Muhammad Reply
What is demand
Mc Reply
demand relates with the need of people for their satisfaction.
Mohd
Distinguish between cross elasticity and income elasticity of demand
Ruth Reply
Distinguish between cross elasticity and income elasticity of demand
Ruth
if change in the demand of the commodity with respect to change in demand of the substitute or other product called cross elasticity
Hamza
and. if change in the demand of the commodity due to change in the income . called income elasticity
Hamza
👍
Vipul
Cross elasticity of demand is the degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded of a commodity to a small change in price of another commodity whiles Income elasticity of demand is the degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded of a commodity to a small change in income of it's consumers
Afriyie
but these are book wordings
Hamza
income elasticity of demand shows how quantity demanded changes due to changes in income on the other hand cross elasticity refers to how the quantity demanded of a particular good alers given a change in the price of another good.
Keysie
what is the competitive demand
Adiza Reply
Income
Sanni
Competitive demand are those commodity dat are competitive in nature e.g the close up and my my toothpaste the increase in price of close up may bring abt decrease in demand of it and it will serve as increase in purchase of my my
Daniel
With regards to coal shortage and manicipal debts the what form of intervention do you think Eskom can put in place.
kedibone Reply
economic growth of Bhutan
Nima Reply
please, explain all the mathematics terms used in economics
nelson
The answer is: little more than high school algebra and graphs.
Tere
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic and management sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11040/1.1
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