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Accessing private members

In those cases where it is necessary for an object of the local class to access private members of the containing object, the compiler automaticallycreates and uses accessor methods that make such access possible.

Similar to your code

The bottom line is that the code that is automatically produced by the compiler is probably very similar to code that you would write if you werewriting the program using only top-level classes. The good news is that you don't have to write that extra code, and you don't have to maintain it. Theextra code is written for you, and if you modify your class structure, the extra code is automatically modified accordingly.

Discussion and sample code

The paragraphs that follow will explain a program named InnerClasses07 . This program is designed specifically to illustrate various characteristics of localclasses. I will discuss the program in fragments. A complete listing is shown in Listing 17 near the end of the module.

This program illustrates the use of local classes. The program consists of a total of five classes:

  • Four top-level classes named
    • InnerClasses07
    • A
    • X
    • Y
  • A local class named B.

When compiled, the program produces the class files shown in Figure 1 . The file named A$1$B.class represents the local class. The remaining files in Figure 1 represent the four top-level classes.

Class hierarchy

In the previous module, I explained that once you understand the class file naming convention, you can determine from the filenames how top-level classes and member classes are structured. However, the situation isn't nearly so clear when it comes to local classes and anonymousclasses. This will become more apparent in the next module, which combines local classes and anonymous classes.

Overall program structure and behavior

Containment hierarchy

The program named InnerClasses07 defines a local class named B inside an instance method named meth .

The method named meth is an instance method of a top-level class named A . The method named meth instantiates two separate objects of the local class named B , and calls a method named showB on each of them.

The method named showB displays certain data values that illustrate the characteristics of localclasses, as well as the containment hierarchy among objects of the local class and an object of the containing class.

In this case, objects of the class named B are contained within an object of the class named A . (The class named A is an enclosing class of the class named B .)

Inheritance hierarchy

The top-level class named A extends the top-level class named X , (which in turn, extends Object ).

The class named B is contained in or enclosed by the top-level class named A , but extends the top-level class named Y , (which in turn, extends Object ).

There is no inheritance relationship between the classes X and Y (aside from their common superclass named Object ).

There is no inheritance relationship between the classes A and B .

The method named showB also displays data values that are intended to demonstrate that the inheritance hierarchy is independent of thecontainment hierarchy.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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