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Conversely, if the price of steel decreases, producing a car becomes less expensive. At any given price for selling cars, car manufacturers can now expect to earn higher profits, so they will supply a higher quantity. The shift of supply to the right, from S 0 to S 2 , means that at all prices, the quantity supplied has increased. In this example, at a price of $20,000, the quantity supplied increases from 18 million on the original supply curve (S 0 ) to 19.8 million on the supply curve S 2 , which is labeled M.

Other factors that affect supply

In the example above, we saw that changes in the prices of inputs in the production process will affect the cost of production and thus the supply. Several other things affect the cost of production, too, such as changes in weather or other natural conditions, new technologies for production, and some government policies.

The cost of production for many agricultural products will be affected by changes in natural conditions. For example, in 2014 the Manchurian Plain in Northeastern China, which produces most of the country's wheat, corn, and soybeans, experienced its most severe drought in 50 years. A drought decreases the supply of agricultural products, which means that at any given price, a lower quantity will be supplied; conversely, especially good weather would shift the supply curve to the right.

When a firm discovers a new technology that allows the firm to produce at a lower cost, the supply curve will shift to the right, as well. For instance, in the 1960s a major scientific effort nicknamed the Green Revolution focused on breeding improved seeds for basic crops like wheat and rice. By the early 1990s, more than two-thirds of the wheat and rice in low-income countries around the world was grown with these Green Revolution seeds—and the harvest was twice as high per acre. A technological improvement that reduces costs of production will shift supply to the right, so that a greater quantity will be produced at any given price.

Government policies can affect the cost of production and the supply curve through taxes, regulations, and subsidies. For example, the U.S. government imposes a tax on alcoholic beverages that collects about $8 billion per year from producers. Taxes are treated as costs by businesses. Higher costs decrease supply for the reasons discussed above. Other examples of policy that can affect cost are the wide array of government regulations that require firms to spend money to provide a cleaner environment or a safer workplace; complying with regulations increases costs.

A government subsidy, on the other hand, is the opposite of a tax. A subsidy occurs when the government pays a firm directly or reduces the firm’s taxes if the firm carries out certain actions. From the firm’s perspective, taxes or regulations are an additional cost of production that shifts supply to the left, leading the firm to produce a lower quantity at every given price. Government subsidies reduce the cost of production and increase supply at every given price, shifting supply to the right. The following Work It Out feature shows how this shift happens.

Questions & Answers

what is choice?
Hilma Reply
Suppose a country with fixed quantities of resources is able to produce any of the following combinations of bread and ovens;
opoku Reply
willingness and ability to buy at a market price at time specified
Joel Reply
demand
JONZY
discuss the meaning of demand in economic
Usman Reply
the willingness and ability to buy a commodity
Rifat
just try to elucidate
Aadil Reply
just try to elucidate something
Aadil
what
Ashfaq
would you explain
azad
what is elasticity, perfectly elastic, inelastic
Rue Reply
When 01 the demand is elastic
Myriam
when demand curve is horizental the curve is perfectly elastic ...when demand curve is vertical then it is perfectly inelastic
Ashfaq
elasticity means that percentage change in quantity demanded due to percentage change in price
Ashfaq
Refers to the level or degree of sensitivity quantity demanded has in my relationship to a change in price
JONZY
introduction to elasticity of demand
Dalhatu Reply
what is price commonly called in the labour market
AYUBA Reply
wages?
penn
Explain demand curve
Ibrahim
price in labour market is Marginal Physical Productivity...
azad
what is the price of elasticity of demand
Mahesh Reply
it is the responsiveness of a certain good. and it is calculated as follows: PED=%change in quantity demanded /%change in price
Rue
what is per capita income
Kafwimbi Reply
what is GDP of an economy
Kafwimbi
Gross Domestic Product
grace
GDP=C+I+G(X-M) C= CONSUMPTION I=INVESTMENT G=GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES (X-M) = export - import
Sayali
What are the factors that drive exchange rates?
MacFisto
Why is scarcity the main problem of economics
Nicholas Reply
Because of unlimited needs and wants demanded by the household
Jeremiah
what is GDP deflator?
saud
Because of endless needs and wants required to achieve maximum satisfaction possible by consumers
Nobert
how to calculate price elasticity demand?
Precious Reply
change in quantity over quantity divided by change in price over price
Pele
Percentage change in quantity demanded over the percentage change in price
Nobert
if the local pizzeria raises the price of a medium pizza from Rd.60to 100 & quantity demanded falls from 700 pizzas a night to 100 pizzas at night , the price elasticity of demand for pizzas is:
Lakshmi Reply
1.2. Measurement of price Elasticity of demand
Lakshmi
0.11
Nobert
Lakshmi tell me how wrong am I coz I see you've got different answer from mine?
Nobert
_1.28
Melvis
explain how price and output are determind by a discriminating monopolist
Hiraj Reply
price and output determined through interaction between demand curve and supply curve...
Ajay
how do I view the graphs
Patricia Reply
how do I open the links
Patricia

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Source:  OpenStax, Microeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11627/1.10
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