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a = 5.783 + 0.1560 x + 0.0212 x 2

c = 11.628 + 0.3340 x + 0.0277 x 2

The large difference in ionic radii between S and Te (0.37 Å) prevents formation of solid solutions in the CuInS 2-x Te x system, however, the single alloy CuInS 1.5 Te 0.5 has been reported.

Orientation effects

Once single crystals of high purity silicon or gallium arsenide are produced they are cut into wafers such that the exposed face of these wafers is either the crystallographic {100} or {111} planes. The relative structure of these surfaces are important with respect to oxidation, etching and thin film growth. These processes are orientation-sensitive; that is, they depend on the direction in which the crystal slice is cut.

Atom density and dangling bonds

The principle planes in a crystal may be differentiated in a number of ways, however, the atom and/or bond density are useful in predicting much of the chemistry of semiconductor surfaces. Since both silicon and gallium arsenide are fcc structures and the {100} and {111} are the only technologically relevant surfaces, discussions will be limited to fcc {100} and {111}.

The atom density of a surface may be defined as the number of atoms per unit area. [link] shows a schematic view of the {111} and {100} planes in a fcc lattice. The {111} plane consists of a hexagonal close packed array in which the crystal directions within the plane are oriented at 60° to each other. The hexagonal packing and the orientation of the crystal directions are indicated in [link] b as an overlaid hexagon. Given the intra-planar inter-atomic distance may be defined as a function of the lattice parameter, the area of this hexagon may be readily calculated. For example in the case of silicon, the hexagon has an area of 38.30 Å 2 . The number of atoms within the hexagon is three: the atom in the center plus 1/3 of each of the six atoms at the vertices of the hexagon (each of the atoms at the hexagons vertices is shared by three other adjacent hexagons). Thus, the atom density of the {111} plane is calculated to be 0.0783 Å -2 . Similarly, the atom density of the {100} plane may be calculated. The {100} plane consists of a square array in which the crystal directions within the plane are oriented at 90° to each other. Since the square is coincident with one of the faces of the unit cell the area of the square may be readily calculated. For example in the case of silicon, the square has an area of 29.49 Å 2 . The number of atoms within the square is 2: the atom in the center plus 1/4 of each of the four atoms at the vertices of the square (each of the atoms at the corners of the square are shared by four other adjacent squares). Thus, the atom density of the {100} plane is calculated to be 0.0678 Å -2 . While these values for the atom density are specific for silicon, their ratio is constant for all diamond cubic and zinc blende structures: {100}:{111} = 1:1.155. In general, the fewer dangling bonds the more stable a surface structure.

Schematic representation of the (111) and (100) faces of a face centered cubic (fcc) lattice showing the relationship between the close packed rows.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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