# 1.10 Practice: sampling and data

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This module provides an opportunity for students to practice concepts related to statistical sampling and data. Given a sample data set, the student will practice constructing frequency tables, differentiating between key terms, and comparing sampling techniques.

## Student learning outcomes

• The student will construct frequency tables.
• The student will differentiate between key terms.
• The student will compare sampling techniques.

## Given

Studies are often done by pharmaceutical companies to determine the effectiveness of a treatment program. Suppose that a new AIDS antibody drug is currently under study. It is given to patients once the AIDS symptoms have revealed themselves. Of interest is the average(mean) length of time in months patients live once starting the treatment. Two researchers each follow a different set of 40 AIDS patients from the start of treatment until their deaths. The following data (in months) are collected.

• 3
• 4
• 11
• 15
• 16
• 17
• 22
• 44
• 37
• 16
• 14
• 24
• 25
• 15
• 26
• 27
• 33
• 29
• 35
• 44
• 13
• 21
• 22
• 10
• 12
• 8
• 40
• 32
• 26
• 27
• 31
• 34
• 29
• 17
• 8
• 24
• 18
• 47
• 33
• 34

• 3
• 14
• 11
• 5
• 16
• 17
• 28
• 41
• 31
• 18
• 14
• 14
• 26
• 25
• 21
• 22
• 31
• 2
• 35
• 44
• 23
• 21
• 21
• 16
• 12
• 18
• 41
• 22
• 16
• 25
• 33
• 34
• 29
• 13
• 18
• 24
• 23
• 42
• 33
• 29

## Organize the data

Complete the tables below using the data provided.

Researcher a
Survival Length (in months) Frequency Relative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency
0.5 - 6.5
6.5 - 12.5
12.5 - 18.5
18.5 - 24.5
24.5 - 30.5
30.5 - 36.5
36.5 - 42.5
42.5 - 48.5
Researcher b
Survival Length (in months) Frequency Relative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency
0.5 - 6.5
6.5 - 12.5
12.5 - 18.5
18.5 - 24.5
24.5 - 30.5
30.5 - 36.5
36.5 - 42.5
42.5 - 48.5

## Key terms

Define the key terms based upon the above example for Researcher A.

Population

Sample

Parameter

Statistic

Variable

Data

## Discussion questions

Discuss the following questions and then answer in complete sentences.

List two reasons why the data may differ.

Can you tell if one researcher is correct and the other one is incorrect? Why?

Would you expect the data to be identical? Why or why not?

How could the researchers gather random data?

Suppose that the first researcher conducted his survey by randomly choosing one state in the nation and then randomly picking 40 patients from that state. What sampling method would that researcher have used?

Suppose that the second researcher conducted his survey by choosing 40 patients he knew. What sampling method would that researcher have used? What concerns would you have about this data set, based upon the data collection method?

#### Questions & Answers

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what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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characteristics of micro business
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
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NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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1 It is estimated that 30% of all drivers have some kind of medical aid in South Africa. What is the probability that in a sample of 10 drivers: 3.1.1 Exactly 4 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.2 At least 2 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.3 More than 9 will have a medical aid.